Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry

Preface for the Spanish Translation of “Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry”

Preface of the Korean Translation of “Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry”

About the Author

The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan

A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective

By Michael Pröbsting, International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), January 2019

BOOK Defeatism in Imperialist States_WEB

Adobe Acrobat Document2.7 MB



List of Tables

List of Figures


Part 1: Features of Imperialism in the 21st Century

I. The Historic Crisis of Capitalism

II. Global Offensive of the Capitalists against the Working Class

III. Capitalism and the Increasing Relevance of Migration

IV. The Marxist Criteria for an Imperialist Great Power

Main Characteristics of an Imperialist respectively a Semi-Colonial State

Is a Transition from Being One Type of State to Another Possible?

“Sub-Imperialism” – A Useful Category?

V. The Emergence of China and Russia as New Great Powers

Production and Trade

Monopolies and Billionaires

Capital Export and Military Spending

VI. The Acceleration of Inter-Imperialist Rivalry and the Global Trade War

At the Onset of a New Cold War

Tianxia – China’s Ideological Challenge

Protectionism and Militarism

The Imperialist Drive for Control of the South

Rivalry between U.S. and China as the Main Axis of Inner-Imperialist Contradictions

VII. Imperialist Great Powers: Some Historical Comparisons

Excurse: The Law of Uneven and Combined Development

Some Historical Examples about the Unevenness of the Great Powers before 1939

Globalization and Great Power Rivalry in the Period before World War One

The “Fat” and the “Lean” Cows

Part 2: Modern Revisionist Theories of Great Power Rivalry in Today’s World

VIII. Revisionist Whitewashing: Stalinist and Bolivarian Admirers of Beijing’s “Socialism”

Is China a Unique Case of Capitalist Miracle?

Russian Stalinists: Failure to Understand Imperialism in their own Country

The Ultra-Stalinist CPGB-ML: “Anti -Imperialist” Russia and China?

IX. Revisionist Whitewashing: Russia and China are neither Capitalist nor Great Powers (PO/CRFI)

Capitalism is still not restored in Russia and China?

Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and its Stalinophile Falsification

Russia’s and China’s Capital Export: Myth and Reality

On the Character of China’s Foreign Investments

State-Owned Corporations in China and Russia: Not Capitalist?

The Role of Migration

X. Revisionist Whitewashing: China and Russia are Semi-Colonies rather than Great Powers (LIT / UIT / FT)

LIT: Is China Comparable with Brazil, India or Mexico?

UIT: China is Super-Exploited by Imperialism?

FT: Russia and China can not become Imperialist before a Major War?

XI. Revisionist Whitewashing: When the Category “Imperialism” has no Meaning (CWI / IMT / IST)

CWI: “Forgetting” about Russia’s or China’s Imperialist Character?

IMT: A purely formal Recognition of Russia and China as Great Powers

SWP: Theoretical Indifference

Part 3: The Program of Revolutionary Defeatism against All Great Powers

XII. Is World War III Inevitable? (Critical Notes on Michael Roberts)

Population Growth and Long Upswings

What are the Conditions for Long Upswings?

An Element of Kautskyanism

XIII. The Proletariat as an International Class

Internationalism and National Liberation

On Aristocratism and the Labor Aristocracy

XIV. The Internationalist Character of the Struggle against Imperialist War and the Social-Patriotic Nature of the Stalinist Theory of “Socialism in One Country”

XV. The Meaning of the Dictum “War is the Continuation of Politics by Other Means

XVI. Revolutionary Defeatism as a Combined Strategy

The Contradictory Nature of Imperialism as the Objective Basis for Anti-Imperialism

The Marxist Classics on the Combined Strategy

XVII. The Relationship between War and Revolution

“Small” and “Large” Imperialist Wars

World War III and Revolution – A Contradiction in Itself?

XVIII. Revolutionary Defeatism in Conflicts between Imperialist States: The Marxist Classics

Marx and Engels in the Pre-Imperialist Epoch

The Bolsheviks and the Russian-Japanese War 1904/05

The Full Elaboration of Lenin’s Defaitist Program in World War One 1914-17

Bolshevik Agitation against the War in Russia

Trotsky continues the Revolutionary Struggle against Imperialist War

XIX. Revolutionary Defeatism in Conflicts between Imperialist States: Programmatic Components (1)

For Working Class Independence – No Support for Any Great Power!

The Struggle against Chauvinism

Changes in Conditions and its Consequences

The Moral Crisis in the Western Imperialist Countries

XX. Revolutionary Defeatism in Conflicts between Imperialist States: Programmatic Components (2)

The Issue of Sanctions of one Great Power against Another

Global Trade War and Internationalist Tactics

Wars between Great Powers respectively their Proxies

Siding with the “Lesser” (Imperialist) Evil?

The Poverty of Pacifism

The Slogan of Disarmament

International Courts of Arbitration and United Nations

XXI. Revolutionary Defeatism in Conflicts between Imperialist States and Oppressed Peoples

Imperialist Wars and Occupations of Semi-Colonial Countries

Imperialist Non-Military Aggressions against Semi-Colonial Countries

Oppression of National Minorities

Tactics of Mass Struggle

On Complex War Scenarios

XXII. Revolutionary Defeatism and the Struggle for Full Equality of Migrants

Part 4: The Failure of the Left in the Struggle against Imperialism

XXIII. The Left Facing Great Power Rivalry: Pro-Western Social-Imperialists

General Introductory Remarks

The Party of the European Left (PEL)

Islamophobia is the new Anti-Semitism of the 21st century

The Japanese Communist Party

JCP: Advisor for an Alternative Strategy for Japanese Imperialism

XXIV. The Left Facing Great Power Rivalry: Pro-Eastern Social-Imperialists (Stalinists)

The Stalinist Alliance around the “International Meeting of Communist and Workers’ Parties”

“Defending the Sovereign Rights of Greece”: The Stalinist KKE as an Example of Bourgeois Social-Chauvinism

Stalinism and Counterrevolution in Syria

Russian Social-Imperialism: The KPRF, the RKRP and the OKP

Stalinists Cheer Serbian Chauvinism against Kosovo Albanians

The Ultra-Stalinist CPGB-ML: Loyal Cheerleaders of Russian and Chinese Imperialism

Excurse: Some Observations on the “Pacifist” and the “Belligerent” Social-Imperialists

XXV. The Left Facing Great Power Rivalry: Pro-Eastern Social-Imperialists (Non-Stalinists)

Boris Kagarlitsky and Rabkor: Great Russian “Marxists” ready to fight for Moscow’s Interests “with Blood and Iron”

The Pro-Russian/Chinese Pseudo-Trotskyists (PO/CRFI)

The Spartacist sects and their defense of the Chinese “Deformed Workers State”

XXVI. On Inverted Social-Imperialism and the “Anti-Imperialist” Appeal of Russia and China

What are the reasons for the misplaced “anti-imperialist” Appeal of Russia and China?

Inverted Social-Imperialism as a Variation of Class-Collaboration

What will Inverted Social-Imperialists do in Case of a Major War?

XXVII. The Left Facing Great Power Rivalry: Deniers of Russia’s and China’s Imperialist Character without Drawing Conclusions

XXVIII. The Left Facing Great Power Rivalry: Eclectic Social-Pacifists

CWI/IMT: Refusal to Defend Semi-Colonial Countries against Imperialism

IMT Russia: No Support for “Chechen Separatism”

Did Lenin “correct” his Program of Revolutionary Defeatism?

The Russian Socialist Movement: Confused Eclecticists

Part 5: The Task of Organizing the Anti-Imperialist Struggle

XXVIX. Building the Revolutionary World Party in the Age of Great Power Rivalry

Changes in the Conditions to Build a Revolutionary World Party

Orientation to the New Militant Layers of the Working Class and Youth

Reformism and Centrism as Obstacles

Appendix: Theses on Revolutionary Defeatism in Imperialist States


About the Author

Preface for the Spanish Translation of “Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry”

By Michael Pröbsting, 13 March 2021

We are glad to present the Spanish-language translation of our book on the Great Power rivalry. This is already the third language – after Portuguese and Korean– in which this comprehensive book has been translated after its original publication in English language two years ago.

The publication of this book is obviously very timely because of the principal relevance of the Great Power rivalry in the current world situation. It is impossible to grasp the dynamic of the world political developments without understanding the key role of the antagonistic interests and conflicts between the imperialist Great Powers (U.S., China, EU, Russia, and Japan).

However, there is also another reason which makes the translation of this book such a welcoming event. The workers and popular movement in Latin America have always been dominated by various shades of petty-bourgeois and bourgeois populism as well as by Stalinism. Since the rise of Chavez, the current known as Bolivarianism has become particularly influential. As Latin America had to suffer from the domination of U.S. imperialism for more than a century, Washington has been clearly the enemy No. 1.

When China did rise as a new Great Power, many leftists (not only in Latin America but globally!) viewed it as a welcome counterweight against the long-time absolute hegemon. This has resulted in a positive view of the Stalinist-capitalist regime in Beijing and the outright denial of China’s imperialist character.

Such a development demonstrates once more the poverty of nationalism and national-centeredness. Viewing global developments from a national or regional – and not from an international – point of view can only result in a one-sided and wrong analysis. Hence, Trotsky emphasized in his writings of the theory of the Permanent Revolution that each and every class struggle must be approached not only from a national but also, and primarily, from an international point of view. For the same reason, Trotsky insisted on the necessary international character of the process of revolutionary building from the very beginning.

It is in such tradition that the RCIT has always explained that socialists must in all political events defend the interests of the international working class and not that of only one (or several) countries. Such an approach allowed us to recognize from early only that the ruling class in Beijing was a reactionary enemy of the workers and poor peasants in China which abolished social rights, advanced the establishment of capitalist production relations and oppressed national minorities like the Muslim Uyghurs. As we explained in our works, the regime of a Great Power which exploits and oppresses its own people can never be an ally of the proletariats’ liberation struggle!

While Chinese imperialism first expanded in Asia and Africa, it has also become a major foreign investor in Latin America itself in the last few years. Still, many leftists ignore this rise and continue denying the imperialist character of new Great Power in the East!

There is a certain interesting parallel with the 1930s since at that time various bourgeois nationalist currents in Latin America (e.g. APRA in Peru) had a very positive view of the U.S. under President Roosevelt. They saw Washington as a potential ally against the old European colonial powers and, consequently, denied the imperialist character of the U.S.. Trotsky and his supporters argued with cadres of APRA and tried to convince them of the necessity to take a consistent anti-imperialist position, i.e. to oppose all Great Powers (including the U.S.). [1]

Unfortunately, most forces of Latin American Trotskyism share the Stalinists’ denial of China’s imperialist character. The Argentinean PO (both factions) even fancies that capitalist restoration still has not been completed in China! Others – like the PTS/FT, PSTU/LIT and UIT – recognize its capitalist character but also categorically reject the theses of Chinese imperialism. We have dealt with their arguments in the present book and, since its publication two years ago, we have written some additional essays which discussed more recent works from Latin American Trotskyists on China. [2]

The current global developments make a correct assessment of the Great Power rivalry more urgent than ever. We are in a period characterized by the Third Depression, i.e. the worst economic slump of the capitalist world economy since 1929, a global anti-democratic turn towards chauvinism and state bonapartism; and the COVID-19 pandemic, the ruling classes all over the world are determined to strengthen themselves at the expense of their rivals. Against such a background, an acceleration of the rivalry between the imperialist Great Powers – in particular between the two strongest, U.S. and China – is unavoidable.

In such a period, socialists – in Latin America as well as globally – must not lend support to any imperialist bourgeoisie. They need to fight against imperialist domination by any Great Power – the U.S., China or others. In any political, economic, or military conflict between imperialist states, socialists must take a revolutionary defeatist position against all of these reactionary enemies. Latin America can become free only in the struggle against all imperialist powers and not in alliance with one of them!

Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to comrade Rubén Jaramilllo who has undertaken the exhausting work of translating this comprehensive book. As always, he has approached this project with tenacity, patience, and a high degree of professionalism!

[1] See e.g. Leon Trotsky: Ignorance Is Not a Revolutionary Instrument (1939), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, 1938-39, pp. 182-190; see also Leon Trotsky: Latin American Problems: A Transcript (1938), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, Supplement (1934-40), pp. 782-794

[2] See e.g. Michael Pröbsting: How is it possible that some Marxists still Doubt that China has Become Capitalist? (A Critique of the PTS/FT). An analysis of the capitalist character of China’s State-Owned Enterprises and its political consequences, 18 September 2020,; by the same author: Unable to See the Wood for the Trees. Eclectic empiricism and the failure of the PTS/FT to recognize the imperialist character of China, 13 August 2020,

Preface of the Korean Translation of “Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry”

By Michael Pröbsting, 30 April 2020

I am very pleased to see the publication of the Korean translation of our book on the Great Power rivalry. This is already the second language – after Portuguese – in which this book has been translated after its original publication in English language a bit more than a year ago.

It does not need many words to explain why the issue of Great Power rivalry is a highly urgent subject for socialists on the Korean Peninsula. It is literally located in the midst of four of the worlds five Great Powers – Japan, China, Russia and the U.S. (due to its strong military presence in South Korea itself as well as in other East Asian countries). Hence, the acceleration of rivalry between these imperialist powers can not but has direct consequences for the Korean people.

The recent events of the global triple crisis will no doubt further accelerate the antagonisms between the imperialist powers. Faced with the Third Depression, i.e. the worst economic slump of the capitalist world economy since 1929, a global anti-democratic turn towards chauvinism and state bonapartism; and the COVID-19 pandemic, the ruling classes all over the world are determined to strengthen themselves at the expense of their rivals. [1] The escalating exchange of chauvinist accusations between Washington and Beijing in the context of the COVID-19 crisis (racist slur of “the Chinese Virus”, speculations about the US resp. the Chinese military being responsible for the creation of the virus, demands for financial compensation, etc.) demonstrate that the rivalry between the imperialist Great Powers – in particular the two strongest, U.S. and China – will be one of the most important feature of world politics in the coming period.

However, there is also another reason which is mentioned in this book but not elaborated in much detail. South Korea itself has become an imperialist state in the 2000s. As the Korean comrades of the RCIT have emphasized – and the author of these lines also contributed a pamphlet on this issue [2] – the capitalist class was able to strengthen itself to such a degree that it could overcome its traditional semi-colonial position and became a monopoly bourgeoisie. Hence, South Korean corporations have become major players on the world market and participate in the imperialist super-exploitation of poorer nations.

A political expression of South Korea’s rise in the league of imperialist states has been the trade war with Japan which began in summer 2019. [3]

These developments demonstrate that the fundamental programmatic conclusions elaborated in “Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry” are highly relevant not only for the five Great Powers but also for smaller imperialist states like South Korea. In summary, these conclusions are that South Korean revolutionaries must not lend any support to their own imperialist bourgeoisie (or any other like that of China). In any political, economic or military conflict with other imperialist states, socialists must act on the old maxim elaborated by the German communist Karl Liebknecht: “the main enemy is at home”. Hence, the Marxist principles which are valid in other imperialist countries are also relevant for South Korea: Any concession to the domestic monopoly bourgeoisie, any adaption to Korean nationalism is paramount to social-chauvinism.

And there is also another issue which makes the analysis of this book relevant for Korean Marxists. As the Peninsula is divided in two states since the devastating war in 1950-53, socialists need to take a clear stance on the long-standing conflict between the U.S. respectively the ruling class in Seoul and North Korea. In contrast to the South, North Korea is not an imperialist state. Since the Stalinist regime implemented the restoration of capitalism, North Korea has become a poor semi-colony. Hence, Marxists have to duty to defend North Korea against the aggression of the U.S. as well as other imperialist powers. Hence, revolutionaries oppose the sanctions against North Korea and call for the military defeat of its enemies in case of a war. Naturally, such defense must go hand in hand with resolute opposition against the bureaucratic, state-capitalist dictatorship in Pyongyang. Such tactics are part of the strategy for the revolutionary unification of Korea and the struggle for the overthrow of the South Korean bourgeoisie as well as of the North Korea Stalinist-capitalist ruling class.

We conclude this brief preface by expressing our hope that the analysis and conclusions of this book will stimulate a fruitful discussion among socialist activists in South Korea. We are aware that due to the traditional strong influence of the Stalinist “National Liberation” current, large sectors of the left oppose the idea that South Korea has become an imperialist state. They rather continue considering the state as a semi-colony (or neo-colony) oppressed and exploited by the U.S. and Japan. However, the dangerous consequence of such a wrong position is – as the recent trade war with Japan demonstrates – that such leftists support the Korean monopoly bourgeoisie. As we have repeatedly emphasized, in practice, such an approach is equivalent to social-imperialism. Korean socialists must break with such a treacherous position and take a firm, internationalist and anti-imperialist stance!

Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to comrade Hong Su-Cheon who is not only an excellent translator but also a Marxist theoretician in his own right who has already published two works on the issue of imperialism. [4]

[1] See on this the new book by Michael Pröbsting: The COVID-19 Global Counterrevolution: What It Is and How to Fight It. A Marxist analysis and strategy for the revolutionary struggle, April 2020,; see also the RCIT Manifesto: COVID-19: A Cover for a Major Global Counterrevolutionary Offensive. We are at a turning point in the world situation as the ruling classes provoke a war-like atmosphere in order to legitimize the build-up of chauvinist state-bonapartist regimes, 21 March 2020, The RCIT has published several dozen documents on the COVID-19 crisis which are all collected at a special sub-page in our website:

[2] Michael Pröbsting: South Korea as an Imperialist Power. On the nature of South Korean monopoly capital and the ensuing programmatic tasks of the workers vanguard, December 2019,; in Korean language: 제국주의 열강으로서의 남한. 한국 독점자본의 성격과 그에 따른 노동자 전위의 강령적 임무, 미하엘 프뢰브스팅, 혁명적 공산주의인터내셔널 동맹 (RCIT) 국제서기, 2019년 12월,

[3] See on this e.g. Down with the Imperialist Trade War between Japan and South Korea! Down with all chauvinist boycott campaigns! Class War instead of Trade War! Joint Statement of the Revolutionary Communists of South Korea and the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 19 July 2019,^; in Korean language: 한·일 제국주의 무역전쟁 분쇄! 모든 배외주의·민족주의 보이콧 캠페인 반대! 무역전쟁이 아니라 계급전쟁으로 나아가자! 남한 혁명적 공산주의자 · 혁명적 공산주의인터내셔널 동맹 (RCIT) 공동성명, 2019년 7월 19일,

[4] 홍수천: 한반도 전쟁 위기와 미·중 제국주의 패권 쟁투 (Hong Su-Cheon: War Crisis on the Korean Peninsula and the Rivaly between US and Chinese Imperialism, Article in Korean language, Spring 2019),; 홍수천: 현 시기 격화하고 있는 제국주의 패권쟁투와 사회주의자의 임무 (Hong Su-Cheon: The Acceleration of the Great Power Rivalry in the Present Period and the Task of Socialists in Korea, Article in Korean language, March 2019),

About the Author

Michael Pröbsting was born in Vienna (Austria) in 1967. He became politically active when he was 14 years old and has been an organized Trotskyist militant since the age of 16. After five years of membership in the United Secretariat of the Fourth International of Ernest Mandel, he joined the League for a Revolutionary Communist International (later renamed to League for the Fifth International) in February 1989. He served on the leadership bodies of the Austrian section from 1989 and of the LRCI/LFI since 1994, until he and his comrades-in-arms were expelled by the majority of this organization in April 2011. Soon after this, they founded the Revolutionary Communist Organization for Liberation in Austria and the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency which has sections, activists and fraternal organizations in 18 countries on all continents. He serves as the International Secretary of the RCIT.

As part of his international political work, Michael Pröbsting has spent lengthy periods in Occupied Palestine (Israel) in 1985, Eastern Germany during the political revolutionary process of 1989-91, Britain in 1994, and during the revolutionary period in Argentina in 2002. In addition, he gained experience in workers’ and anti-imperialist movements during visits to numerous countries in Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe and North America.

Michael Pröbsting is the author of many articles and pamphlets in both German and English of which a number have been translated in other languages. His books are:

* Rosa Luxemburg – ”Ich bin ein Land der unbeschränkten Möglichkeiten“ (Co-Author, 1999)

* The Credit Crunch – A Marxist Analyses (Co-Author, 2008)

* Marxismus, Migration und revolutionäre Integration (2010)

* Die halbe Revolution. Lehren und Perspektiven des arabischen Aufstandes (2011)

* The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism (2013)

* Cuba’s Revolution Sold Out? The Road from Revolution to the Restoration of Capitalism (2013)

* Building the Revolutionary Party in Theory and Practice (2014)

* Greece: A Modern Semi-Colony. The Contradictory Development of Greek Capitalism (2015)

* Marxism and the United Front Tactic Today (2016)

* World Perspectives 2018: A World Pregnant with Wars and Popular Uprisings (2018)


Abraham Ascher: The Revolution of 1905. Vol. 1 and 2, Stanford University Press, Stanford 1992

Agence France-Presse: Chinese companies push out Japan on Fortune Global 500 list, July 9, 2012,

____ Russia says over 63,000 troops have fought in Syria, August 22, 2018,

Allen, Barbara C.: Alexander Shlyapnikov, 1885-1937. Life of an Old Bolshevik, Haymarket Books, Chicago 2015

Allison, Graham T.: Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap? Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York 2017; Graham Allison: China and Russia: A Strategic Alliance in the Making, December 14, 2018

____ The Thucydides Trap: Are the U.S. and China Headed for War? Sep 24, 2015 The Atlantic,

Alvaredo, Facundo, Lucas Chancel, Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez, Gabriel Zucman: World Inequality Report 2018

Armstrong, Martin: World Trade – Who is Really Hurt in the Trade War, April 7, 2018

Arrighi, Giovanni and Beverly J. Silver: Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 1999

Arslanalp, Serkan and Takahiro Tsuda: Tracking Global Demand for Emerging Market Sovereign Debt, International Monetary Fund, Working Paper, March 2014

Astrow, W., A. Slepkow, J. Thomas (Eds): Illustrierte Geschichte der Russischen Revolution 1917 (published in 1928, reprinted by Verlag Neue Kritik, Frankfurt am Main 1970)

Attard, Joe: US-China trade dispute: Trump’s recklessness deepens instability, 17 May 2018

Autorenkollektiv: Studien zur Geschichte der Kommunistischen Internationale, Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1974

Avrich, Paul: Russian Rebels, 1600-1800, Schocken Books, New York 1972

Babones, Salvatore: American Tianxia, Chinese money, American power, and the end of history, Policy Press, Bristol 2017

Bachtell, John: A new era for building socialism with ‘Chinese characteristics’, June 14, 2018,

Bairoch, Paul and Richard Kozul-Wright: Globalization Myths: Some Historical Reflections on Integration, Industrialization and Growth in the World Economy, UNCTAD Discussion Papers No. 113, 1996

Balabanova, Angelica: Die Zimmerwalder Bewegung 1914–1919. Hirschfeld, Leipzig 1928

Barber, John: Soviet Historians in Crisis, 1928-32, Macmillan Press, London 1981

Baron, Samuel H.: Plekhanov, Trotsky and the Development of Soviet Historiography, in: Soviet Studies, Vol. 26 (1974), No. 3

Barmin, Yury: Russia and Israel: The Middle East vector of relations, Russian International Affairs Council, Afro-Middle East Centre (AMEC) Briefing No. 13/2018 10 November 2018

Bassin, Mark: Imperialer Raum / Nationaler Raum, in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft Vol. 28 (2002)

Batsaikhan, Uuriintuya, Zsolt Darvas and Inês Gonçalves Raposo: People on the move: migration and mobility in the European Union, Bruegel Blueprint Series Volume XXVIII, Bruegel, Brussels 2018

Battilossi, Stefano: The Determinants of Multinational Banking during the First Globalization, 1870-1914, Working Papers 114, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), 2006

Bayerlein, Bernhard H.. Der Verräter, Stalin, bist Du! Vom Ende der linken Solidarität 1939-1941. Komintern und kommunistische Parteien im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 2009

BBC: Xi Jinping: ‘Time for China to take centre stage’, 18 October 2017,

Behrendt, Lutz-Dieter: M.N. Pokrovskij als Historiker der Großen Sozialistischen Oktoberrevolution, in: Jahrbuch für Geschichte der sozialistischen Länder Europas, Jg. 22, Berlin 1978

Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung: David Borisovič Rjazanov und die erste MEGA. Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung. Neue Folge. Sonderband 1. Argument, Hamburg 1996

Biffl, Gudrun: Die Zuwanderung von Ausländern nach Österreich. Kosten-Nutzen-Überlegungen und Fragen der Sozialtransfers (1997), WIFO

Bishop, Bill: China wants to reshape the global order, in: Axios China, Jan 19, 2018,

Bisovsky, Gerhard, Hans Schafranek und Robert Streibel (Ed.): Der Hitler-Stalin-Pakt, Verlag: Picus Verlag;, 1990

Blanco, Roberto Mansilla: Russia in Latin America: Geopolitics and pragmatism, November 28, 2018

Bloomberg: China Built a Global Economy in 40 Years. Now It Has a New Plan, 16 December 2018,

Bond, Patrick: BRICS and the tendency to sub-imperialism, 2014-04-10, Pambazuka, Issue 673,

____ and Ana Garcia (Eds.): BRICS – An Anti-Capitalist Critique, Pluto Press, London 2015; Patrick Bond: Towards a Broader Theory of Imperialism, 2018-04-19,

Bonham, Max: On the Escalating Greek-Turkish Tensions, Internationalist Socialist League (RCIT Section in Israel/Occupied Palestine), 30 April 2018,

Bonwetsch, Bernd: Das ausländische Kapital in Rußland, in: Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, Vol. 22 (1974)

Boston Consulting Group: The Global Workforce Crisis: $10 Trillion at Risk, BCG Report, June 2014

Boyd, Alan: Why the Quad can’t get it together, November 20, 2018

Brar, Joti: The Drive to War Against Russia and China, CPGB(ML), Shakun Printers, Shahdara 2017

Brenner, Richard, Michael Pröbsting, Keith Spencer: The Credit Crunch – A Marxist Analysis, London 2008

Brügel, J.W.: Stalin und Hitler. Europaverlag, Wien 1973

Buber-Neumann, Margarete: Als Gefangene bei Stalin und Hitler, Seewald Verlag, Stuttgart 1985

Budd, Adrian: Rulers make ready for discontent, Socialist Review, Issue: October 2018

____ China: New strains on state capitalism, Socialist Review, Issue: May 2018,

Bukharin, Nikolai: Toward a Theory of the Imperialist State (1915), in: Robert V. Daniel: A Documentary History of Communism, Vol. 1, Vintage Russian Library, Vintage Books, New York 1960,

____ Ökonomik der Transformationsperiode. Mit Randbemerkungen von Lenin, Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1990

____ and Evgenii Preobrazhensky: The ABC of Communism (1920), published by the Communist Party of Great Britain, 1922

Burkhard, Bud: D. B. Rjazanov and the Marx-Engels Institute: Notes toward further Research, in: Studies in Soviet Thought 30 (1985)

Burnham, James: (John West): War and the Workers (1936), Workers Party Pamphlet,

____ How to fight war – Isolation, Collective Security, Relentless Class Struggle? (1938), SWP Pamphlet

Buzgalin, Alexander: «Российский капитал не пустили на рынки – и он начал драться», 16.03.2018,

____ Why Does the West Hate Putin? – RAI with A. Buzgalin (10/12), July 25, 2018,

Byrnes, Robert F.: Creating the Soviet Historical Profession, 1917-1934, in: Slavic Review, Vol. 50 (1991), No. 2

Callinicos, Alex: Marxism and Imperialism today, in: A. Callinicos, J. Rees, C Harman & M. Haynes: Marxism and the New Imperialism , London 1994

____ Trump’s trade war means chaos for the ruling class, 6 Mar 2018, Socialist Worker, Issue No. 2594

____ Trump gets serious, International Socialist Journal, Issue: 158 (2018),

____ Darkening prospects, International Socialist Journal, Issue: 159 (2018),

____ The global trade war hasn’t been resolved, 31 Jul 2018, Socialist Worker, Issue No. 2615,

Cannon, James P.: E.V. Debs (1956); in: James P. Cannon: The First Ten Years of American Communism, Pathfinder Press, New York 1962

China Labour Bulletin: Migrant workers in China, 6 June, 2008,

Chu, Daye and Zhang Dan: Results underpin economy amid downward pressure, Global Times 2019/1/17

Cinatti, Claudia: The Geopolitics of the Civil War in Syria, September 14, 2016,

Clarke, Renfrey and Roger Annis: The myth of ‘Russian imperialism’: In defense of Lenin’s analyses, Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal, February 29, 2016,

Clausewitz, Carl von: Vom Kriege (1832), Hamburg 1963; in English: Carl von Clausewitz: On War,

Cohen, Michael, Samer Al-Atrush, Henry Meyer, and Margaret Talev: America’s Moment of Truth in Africa: It’s Losing Out to China, 14. Dezember 2018,

Cohen, Stephen F.: Soviet fates and lost alternatives: from Stalinism to the new Cold War; Columbia University Press 2009

Committee for a Workers International: World Perspectives – New Period of Instability and Revolutions, Thesis of the European Bureau of the CWI, May 6, 2011,

____ World perspectives, Thesis for the International Executive Committee (IEC) of the CWI 2013, 22/11/2013,;

____ World Perspectives: A turbulent period in history, International Secretariat of the CWI, 27 November 2014–A-turbulent-period-in-history

____ CWI World Congress 2016 World Perspectives,–World-Perspectives

____ Theses on Middle East, December 2016,

____ World Perspectives, 08 December 2017, CWI International Executive Committee,

Communist International: A Manifesto to the Peoples of the East, issued by the Congress of the Peoples of the East, Baku 1920, in: Baku: Congress of the Peoples of the East, New Park Publication 1977, online:

____ Theses on the Role of the Communist Party in the Proletarian Revolution, approved by the Second Comintern Congress (1920); in: John Riddell (Ed.): Workers of the World and Oppressed Peoples, Unite! (Volume 1), Proceedings and Documents of the Second Congress of the Communist International, 1920

____ Theses on the Fight against the War Danger (1922), in: Jane Degras: The Communist International 1919-1943. Documents Volume I 1919-1922

____ Theses on the Eastern Question, Fourth Congress of the Communist International, December 1922, in: Jane Degras: The Communist International 1919-1943. Documents. Volume I 1919-1922,

Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist-Leninist): Syria advances to liberation. The Syrian people are standing firm against all the plots and intrigues by which imperialism hopes to cheat them of their victory, 10 July 2018,

____ Beware the drive to WW3 with Russia and China, Party statement of the CPGB(ML) 8th Congress, 21 November 2018

____ US imperialism losing the plot in Syria. The imperialists are raging as strong diplomacy combined with military advances edge the Syrian people ever closer to their final victory, 9 December 2018,

Communist Party of Greece: Programme of the KKE, adopted at the 19th Congress of the KKE, 11-14 April 2013,

____ The danger of the imperialist war and the stance of the Communists, Theses of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) at the 12th International Conference “V.I. Lenin and the Contemporary World”, 20.04.2018,

____ On the agreement between Greece-FYROM, 14/6/2018, Press Office of the CC of the KKE,

____ Kommounistiki Epitheorisi (No. 2, 2018), quoted in SL: For a Socialist Federation of the Balkans! Greece: Chauvinist Frenzy over Macedonia, Part One, Workers Vanguard No. 1142, 19 October 2018,

Communist Party of the Russian Fedeartion: Party Programme (2008), of the bombing of Syria by the USA, United Kingdom and France, 17 April 2018,

Constitution of the People’s Republic of China,

Conte, Gregory and Richard Spencer: Stay Out Of Syria, April 14, 2018

Coordinating Committee for the Refoundation of the Fourth International: Draft of programmatic thesis for the Congress for the Refoundation of the IV International, 2004,

____ Emergency Euro-Mediterranean Encounter Final Resolution: Fight imperialism and war with the international socialist revolution! Forward to the revolutionary International! Eretria, Greece, 25 July 2018,

CoReP: Down with the French imperialist intervention in Mali,

____ The Liaison Committee of Centrists capitulates in front of Islamism, 2 October 2016,

Craipeau, Yvan: Swimming Against the Stream. Trotskyists in German Occupied France, Merlin Press, Pontypool 2013

Crawford, Neta C.: Human Cost of the Post-9/11 Wars: Lethality and the Need for Transparency, November 2018, Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs at the Brown University

Credit Suisse Research Institute: Global Wealth Report 2013

____ Getting over Globalization, 2017

____ Global Wealth Databook 2018, October 2018

Crouzet, François: A History of the European Economy, 1000–2000, University Press of Virginia, 2001

Cuba Congratulates China on Communist Party Congress, 18 October 2017

Демидова Светлана Евгеньевна Особенности индикативного планирования в России // Вестник Псковского государственного университета. Серия: Экономика. Право. Управление. 2016. №3. URL:

Дневник комбрига. Алексей Мозговой, 22.06.2016,

Доходы Москвы от мигрантов превысили налоги с нефтяных компаний, 6.8.206,

Dahlmann, Dittmar: Zwischen Europa und Asien. Russischer Imperialismus im 19.Jahrhundert, in: Wolfgang Reinhard (Ed): Imperialistische Kontinuität und nationale Ungeduld im 19. Jahrhundert, Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. 1991

Danos, Jaques, Marcel Gibelin: Die Volksfront in Frankreich. Generalstreik und Linksregierung im Juni ’36, Junius Verlag, Hamburg 1982

Dalvit, Paolo: Die Außenpolitik im Klassenkampf. Die Position von Marx und Engels zum Krimkrieg, in: Marx und Russland. Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung Neue Folge 2012, Argument, Hamburg 2014

Dao, Mai Chi, Mitali Das, Zsoka Koczan, Weicheng Lian: Why is Labor Receiving a Smaller Share of Global Income? Theory and Empirical Evidence. IMF Working Paper, July 2017

Davis, Donald E. and Walter S.G. Kohn: Lenin on Clausewitz, in: Soviet Armed Forces Review Annual, Vol. I, Academic International Press, 1977, Gulf Breeze, Florida

Day, Richard B., Daniel F. Gaido (Eds): Discovering Imperialism: Social Democracy to World War I, Historical Materialism Book Series Vol. 33, Leiden 2012

Deborin, Abram: Lenin als revolutionärer Dialektiker (1925); in: Nikolai Bucharin/Abram Deborin: Kontroversen über dialektischen und mechanistischen Materialismus, Frankfurt a.M. 1974

Dessein, Bart: Faith and Politics: (New) Confucianism as Civil Religion, in: Asian Studies II (XVIII), 1 (2014)

Dicken, Peter: Global Shift. Mapping The Changing Contours Of The World Economy (Sixth Edition), The Guilford Press, New York 2011

Dimitroff, Georgi: The United Front. The Struggle Against Fascism and War, Proletarian Publishers, San Francisco 1975

Djagalov, Rossen: We Asked: Geopolitics and the Left (Part I: Russia & the West), LeftEast April 19 2018,

Dölek, Levent: The Character of War in 21st Century: Are China and Russia a target or a side of the war? In: World Revolution / Revolución Mundial Issue 1 (Autumn 2018)

Dollar, David: China’s Rebalancing: Lessons from East Asian Economic History, The Brookings Institution, Working Paper Series, October 2013

Donnert, Erich: Pokrovskijs Stellung in der sowjetischen Geschichtswissenschaft, in: Jahrbuch für Geschichte der sozialistischen Länder Europas, Jg. 7, Berlin 1963

Draper, Hal: The Myth of Lenin’s “Revolutionary Defeatism (1953/54),

Dugin, Aleksandr: The Fourth Political Theory, Arktos, Eurasian Movement, London 2012

____ Putin vs Putin – Vladimir Putin Viewed from the Right, Arktos, London 2014

____ Eurasian Mission: An Introduction to Neo-Eurasianism, Arktos, London 2014

____ Last War of the World-Island – The Geopolitics of Contemporary Russia, Arktos, London 2015

Dunlop, John: Russia Confronts Chechnya. Roots of a Separatist Conflict, Cambridge University Press 1998

Dzarasov, Ruslan: The Conundrum of Russian Capitalism. The Post-Soviet Economy in the World System, Pluto Press, London 2014

Екатерина Коростиченко: «Изучение татарского превращается в муку для родителей», 8 сентября 2017,

Eastspring Investments: Trade and Tariffs, Lessons from History, 2018

Economy, Elizabeth: The Third Revolution. Xi Jinping and the New Chinese State, Council on Foreign Relations, Oxford University Press, New York 2018

Engdahl, William F: Target: China. How Washington and Wall Street Plan to Cage the Asian Dragon, Progressive Press, 2014

____ The Lost Hegemon. Who the Gods Would Destroy, mineBooks, Wiesbaden 2016

____ The Eurasian Century Is NOW Unstoppable, October 7, 2016,

____ Transformational Projects in Eurasia Land Space, 2016-09-10,

Eiermann, Karin-Irene: The Russian Concession in Wuhan (1896-1925) – Imperialism and Great Power Rivalry, in: COMPARATIV Vol. 15 (2005), No. 5/6

Engels, Friedrich: The European War (1854), in: MECW 12

____ The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. In the Light of the Researches by Lewis H. Morgan (1884), in: MECW Vol. 26

____ Letter to Joseph Bloch (1890); in: MECW Vol. 49

Enteen, George M.: Marxists versus Non-Marxists: Soviet Historiography in the 1920s, in: Slavic Review, Vol. 35 (1976), No. 1

____ Soviet Historians review their own Past: The Rehabilitation of Pokrovsky, in: Soviet Studies, Vol. 20 (1969), No. 3

____ The Soviet Scholar-Bureaucrat: M. N. Pokrovskii and the Society of Marxist Historians, Pennsylvania State University 1978

____ and Tatiana Gorn, and Cheryl Kern: Soviet Historians and the Study of Russian Imperialism, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1979

Escobar, Pepe: Liquid War Across Eurasia and the Asia-Pacific: Postcard from Pipelineistan, in: The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol 21, May 23, 2009,

____ The Geopolitical Earthquakes Reshaping Eurasia’s Economy, May 19, 2014,

____ Empire of Chaos. The Roving Eye Collection, Vol.1, Nimble Books 2014

____ What the BRICS plus Germany are really up to? February 27, 2015

____ The Eurasian Big Bang. How China and Russia Are Running Rings Around Washington, 23.7.2015,

____ The Pivot to Eurasia, July 23, 2015,

____ Eagle-meets-Bear and the Syria tug-of-war, July 5, 2018

____ Tariffs ‘kick off 50-year trade war’ with China; July 6, 2018

____ Trump, NATO and ‘Russian aggression’, July 13, 2018

____ Here’s the real reason the US must talk to Russia, July 21, 2018

____ How BRICS Plus clashes with the US economic war on Iran, July 28, 2018

____ Economic war on Iran is war on Eurasia integration, August 14, 2018

____ Here comes the 30-year trade war; September 23, 2018

____ Pepe Escobar: Welcome to the G-20 from Hell, October 14, 2018

____ How the New Silk Roads are merging into Greater Eurasia, December 13, 2018

____ Chinese scholar offers insight into Beijing’s strategic mindset. Essay by security expert Professor Zhang Wenmu gives a glimpse of China’s geostrategic outlook, from the ‘Western Pacific Chinese Sea’ to the far side of the moon, January 5, 2019

____ All under Heaven, China’s challenge to the Westphalian system. Beijing is tweaking the rules of the Western order to reflect its revitalized geopolitical and economic power, but some Americans see this as a threat to their way of life, January 10, 2019

Eurasia Group: Top Risks 2018

Ex-Separatist Leader Launches Party Aimed at Restoring Russia’s Empire,

Faiola, Anthony and Karen DeYoung: In Venezuela, Russia pockets key energy assets in exchange for cash bailouts, Washington Post, December 24, 2018,

Falletti, Sebastien: US trade war raises the specter of new Cold War, December 25, 2018

Ferre, Juan Cruz: 21st Century Economic Nationalism, March 26, 2018

Fickling, David: Globalists Will Love Trump’s New Nafta Deal. Despite the fanfare, the agreement doesn’t change much. 1. Oktober 2018,

Financial Times: Fortunes of Nigeria’s banks tied to the oil price, 20.11.2018,

Fisher, Olga Hess, H.H. Gankin: The Bolsheviks and the World War; the Origin of the Third International, Stanford University Press, Stanford 1940

Flemming, William: The Deportation of the Chechen and lngush Peoples: A Critical Examination, in: Ben Fowkes (Ed.): Russia and Chechnia: The Permanent Crisis. Essays on Russo-Chechen Relations, Macmillan Press Ltd 1998

Forbes Global 2000 List (2017),

Fortune: Fortune Global 500 List 2018: See Who Made It,

Fourth International: The Evolution of the Comintern. Resolution of the First Conference for the Fourth International in July 1936, in: Documents of the Fourth International, New York 1973

____ A Manifesto against Imperialist War! The Executive Committee of the Fourth International (World Party of the Socialist Revolution) September 1938, in: Documents of the Fourth International, New York 1973

____ Imperialist War And The Proletarian World Revolution, Adopted by the Emergency Conference of the Fourth International, May 19-26, 1940; in: Documents of the Fourth International, The Formative Years (1933-40), Pathfinder Press, New York 1973,

Fracción Leninista Trotskista Internacional – Colectivo por la Refundación de la IV Internacional: Vienna Summit with US, Putin, Iranian Ayatollahs, the genocidal Al Assad, Zionism, Qatar, Turkey taking in its hand bourgeois generals of FSA, the chiefs of ISIS of Saudi Arabia, the Kurdish bourgeoisie… Under the command of Obama, all the executioners of the revolutions in the Maghreb and the Middle East are meeting, 4.11.2015,

Franks, Don: Mali invaded in new ‘scramble for Africa’, February 2, 2013,

French Communist Party : C’est le Mali qu’il faut reconstruire, (11.1.2013),

____ L‘ intervention militaire française comporte de grands risques de guerre (12.1.2013),

Fukuyama, Francis: The End of History and the Last Man, Free Press, New York 1992

Furtado, Celso: Economic Development of Latin America. Historical Background and Contemporary Problems, New York 1984

Gan, Nectar: Make China great again: Communist Party seeks to seize ‘historic’ moment to reshape world order. High-profile comment piece urges country to rally around Xi and realise nation’s global aspirations, 18 January, 2018,

Getzler, Israel: Lenin’s Conception of Revolution As Civil War, in: The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 74, No. 3 (Jul., 1996)

Geyer, Dietrich: Der russische Imperialismus. Studien über den Zusammenhang von innerer und auswärtiger Politik 1860–1914, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1977

____ (Ed.): Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im vorrevolutionären Rußland, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Köln 1975

Ghelli, Nathan: Russian Investment in Africa Contributes to Its Development, June 18, 2018

Giannopoulou, Angelina: The Party of the European Left, Diem25 and the transnational campaign of Jean-Luc Mélenchon towards the European Elections in 2019, transform europe! 2018; Cécile Barbière: La France Insoumise wants to turn European elections into anti-Macron referendum, 3. Okt. 2018,

Gilbert, Simon: Focus on China: Workers and the national question, Socialist Review, Issue: September 2018

____ China: A labour movement in the making, Socialist Review, Issue: April 2018,

Gluckstein, Donny: The Paris Commune: A Revolution in Democracy, Bookmarks Publication, London 2006

Gmundner, Hans: Straches Handlangerdienste, KPÖ, 10.11.07,[tt_news]=105&tx_ttnews[backPid]=2&cHash=7fe484e968

Godeiro, Nazareno: The validity of Lenin’s imperialism theory, LIT-CI, International Courier, 09 October 2014,

Godfrey, John: Capitalism at War: Industrial Policy and Bureaucracy in France, 1914-1918, Berg Publishers, Leamington Spa 1987

Guarino, Arthur S.: The Economic Implications of an Aging Global Population, 02.08.2018,

Gunić, Nina: Gegen das Verhüllungsverbot! Für Religionsfreiheit und Frauenrechte! Kampf dem islamophoben Rassismus und der Diskriminierung muslimischer Frauen!

____ and Michael Pröbsting: These are not “riots” – this is an uprising of the poor in the cities of Britain! The strategic task: From the uprising to the revolution!, 10.8.2011,

Guriev, Sergei and Andrei Rachinsky: Oligarchs: the past or the future of Russian capitalism? July 2004

Guschanski, Alexander and Özlem Onaran: Why is the wage share falling in emerging economies? Industry level evidence, University of Greenwich, 2017

Gysi, Gregor: Die Haltung der deutschen Linken zum Staat Israel, Vortrag von Dr. Gregor Gysi auf einer Veranstaltung „60 Jahre Israel“ der Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung am 14.4.2008,

____ An Internationalist Answer, Speech, President of the European Left, held at the Federal Party Congress in Leipzig, 9 June 2018, on the dispute on refugees and migration,

Haberly, Daniel and Dariusz Wójcik: Tax havens and the production of offshore FDI: An empirical analysis (2013)

Hagen, Manfred: Der Russische “Bonapartismus“ nach 1906, in: Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas‚ Vol. 24 (1976), No. 3

Hallgarten, G.W.F. : Das Schicksal des Imperialismus im 20. Jahrhundert. Drei Abhandlungen über Kriegsursachen in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt a.M. 1969

Hardach, Gerd: First World War, 1914-1918, Penguin Books, New York 1987

Hardcastle, Edgar: Socialists and War (on Boris Souvarine), Socialist Standard, August 1932,

Hardy, Jane and Adrian Budd: China’s capitalism and the crisis, International Socialist Journal, Issue: 133, 9th January 2012,

Haumann, Heiko: Staatsintervention und Monopole im Zarenreich – ein Beispiel für Organisierten Kapitalismus? in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft Vol. 5 (1979), No. 2

Henry, James S.: The Price of Offshore Revisited. Tax Justice Network 2012

Hiratuka, Celio: Foreign Direct Investment and Transnational Corporations in Brazil: Recent Trends and Impacts on Economic Development, April 2008

History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks): Short Course, Edited by a Commission of the C.C. of the C.P.S.U.(B.), International Publishers, New York 1939

Heer, Jeet: Are We Witnessing the Fall of the American Empire? Trump’s presidency is often compared to the decline of Rome, but the reality is much more complicated, March 7, 2018

Heller, Pablo: China: El otro bonapartismo, March 9, 2017, Prensa Obrera # 1449

____ A dónde va China. Entre la guerra comercial y la restauración capitalista, 26 de abril de 2018,

Henehan, Kathleen: The £3.2bn pay penalty facing black and ethnic minority workers, 27 December 2018 Job

Hilferding, Rudolf: Finance Capital. A Study of the Latest Phase of Capitalist Development (1910), Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1981.

Hobsbawm, E. J. : The Age of Empire, Vintage Books, New York 1989

Hofmeister, Ulrich: Zwischen Kontinentalimperium und Kontinentalmacht. Repräsentationen der russischen Herrschaft in Turkestan, 1865–1917, in: Martin Aust and Julia Obertreis (Eds.): Osteuropäische Geschichte und Globalgeschichte, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2014

Holland, Steve, Lesley Wroughton: U.S. to counter China, Russia influence in Africa: Bolton, December 13, 2018,

Hong Kong Trade Development Council: Changing Global Production Landscape and Asia’s Flourishing Supply Chain, 3 October 2017

Horwitz, Josh: China’s Communist Party is all in on the power of technology, October 25, 2017,

Hoston, Germaine A.: Marxism and the Crisis of Development in Prewar Japan, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1986

House of Lords (Britain): Report – Economic Impact of Migration in UK (2008)

How Russia is boosting its role in Africa with weapons, investment and ‘instructors’, 14 August, 2018,

Huang, Yang: Perceptions of the Barbarian in Early Greece and China, in: CHS Research Bulletin 2, No. 1 (2013).

Huang, Yukon: Opinion: China’s Trade War With U.S. Is About Technological Dominance, May 16, 2018

Humbert-Droz, Jules: Der Krieg und die Internationale. Die Konferenzen von Zimmerwald und Kienthal, Wien 1964

Huntington, Samuel P.: The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon & Schuster, New York 1996

Hurun Global Rich List 2017,

Hutt, David: Eye on US, Europe looks askance at Huawei, January 14, 2019

ING: Russia intensifies net foreign debt redemption in 3Q, 11.10.2018,

International Labour Organization: The Labour Share in G20 Economies, Report from the International Labour Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development with contributions from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group, Report prepared for the G20 Employment Working Group, Antalya, Turkey, 26-27 February 2015

____ World Employment and Social Outlook – Trends 2015, Supporting Data

International Bolshevik Tendency: A Note on the World Situation. Recent Departures & Line Change on Russia, 27.10.2018,

International Marxist Tendency: Perspectives for World Revolution 2014, 29 January 2014,

____ Crisis and Class Struggle: World Perspectives 2016, 26 March 2016

____ World Perspectives 2016 – An update, 06 December 2016,

____ World perspectives: 2018 – a year of capitalist crisis, 05 April 2018

IMT Russia: Украина и национальный вопрос (Ukraine and the national question),

International Meeting of Communist and Workers’ Parties: Appeal of the 20th International Meeting of Communist and Workers’ Parties, 29.11.2018,

____ Statement of Solidarity of Communist and Workers’ Parties in Support of the Just Cause of the Workers’ Party of Korea and the Korean People for an Independent and Peaceful Reunification of Korea and for Peace and Security on the Korean Peninsula, 20 IMCWP, Statement of Solidarity of Communist and Workers’ Parties, November 25, 2018 Athens, Greece,


____ 20 IMCWP, Informative note of Party of Labour of Austria, 11/19/2018,

International Monetary Fund: World Economic Outlook: Gaining Momentum? Washington, April 2017

International Workers Unity – Fourth International: Global Policy Theses, discussed and voted at the Fourth Congress of the IWU-FI, Chapter “VI. China: Towards a new hegemonic power?”,

____ We repudiate the imperialist shelling on Syria! No to Trump’s killer missiles! April 14, 2018,

Internationalist Socialist League (RCIT Section in Occupied Palestine / Israel): On Trump’s attack on Syria, 15.04.2018,

Internationalist Group: Drive the Imperialists Out of the Middle East! U.S./NATO: Get Your Bloody Claws Off Syria!

Iturbe, Alejandro: Certainties and questions raised by China’s economic crisis – Part 1, March 30, 2016

____ Certainties and questions raised by China’s economic crisis – Part 2, March 22, 2016

____ Capitalist Restoration in China, September 7, 2017

____ Trump’s trade sanctions against China, March 29, 2018

Jaimoukha, Amjad: The Chechens. A handbook, RoutledgeCurzon 2005

Japanese Communist Party: The Senkaku Islands–Japanese Territory. Press Conference by Tomio Nishizawa, JCP Standing Presidium Member, Akahata, 31.3.1972;

____ The Fifty Years of the Communist Party of Japan, published by the Publication Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Japan, Tokyo 1973

____ JCP’s view on relationship between Constitution’s Article 9 and the Self-Defense Forces, September 30 2000,

____ Program of the Japanese Communist Party, adopted on January 17, 2004 at the JCP 23rd Congress,

____ How to solve the issue of the Senkaku Islands: Japan justifiably claims sovereignty; 20.9.2010,

____ Takeshima issue should be solved through diplomacy: JCP chair; August 11, 2012,

____ Calm diplomatic efforts needed to solve territorial issues: JCP Ichida; 21.8.2012,

____ Not too late for Japan to join AIIB: Shii, April 2, 2015

____ Shii condemns terror attacks in Paris, November 15, 2015

____ Shii welcomes new UNSC sanctions on North Korea, March 4, 2016

____ Shii protests North Korea’s missile launch, February 14, 2017

____ Shii explains to press JCP proposal on North Korea issue, February 20, 2017

____ JCP Chair Shii issues statement to welcome the nuclear weapons ban treaty, July 9, 2017

____ Shii issues statement protesting against N. Korea’s ballistic missile launch, May 22, 2017

____ Shii issues statement welcoming draft N-ban treaty, May 24, 2017

____ Shii issues statement condemning N. Korea’s missile launch, August 30, 2017

____ JCP condemns North Korea’s nuclear test and again calls for direct talks to defuse current crisis, September 4, 2017,

____ What is the JCP? A Profile of the Japanese Communist Party (November, 2017),

____ Kazuo Shii: JCP strongly condemns North Korea’s ballistic missile launch and again calls for immediate direct talks to overcome the current crisis, November 29, 2017

____ JCP opposes the Japan-U.S. trade negotiations which disregards Japan’s economic sovereignty, September 28, 2018,

Jeffreys, Alan, Patrick Rose (Eds): The Indian Army, 1939-47: Experience and Development, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Furnham 2012

Jiang, Jingyi and Kei-Mu Yi: How Rich Will China Become? A simple calculation based on South Korea and Japan’s experience, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, in: The Region, June 2015

Jordan, Serge: No to the bombing of Syria! Build a mass movement against the war, CWI 12 April 2018

Joll, James: The Origins of the First World War, Longman, New York 1984

Kagarlitsky, Boris: Empire of the Periphery. Russia and the World System, Pluto Press, London 2008

____ The Choices for the Left in the Age of Trump, February 7, 2017,

____ Revolt of the Rich, 06.10.2017,

Kahanec, Martin and Martin Guzi: How Immigrants Helped EU Labor Markets to Adjust during the Great Recession, IZA – Institute of Labor Economics, Discussion Paper No. 10443, December 2016

Kappeler, Andreas: Rußland als Vielvölkerreich. Entstehung, Geschichte, Zerfall. Beck, München 1992

Karabarbounis, Loukas and Brent Neiman: The Global Decline of the Labor Share, NBER Working Paper 19136, June 2013

____ The Global Decline of the Labor Share (And Follow-up Thoughts), University of Chicago, March 2014

____ The Global Decline of the Labor Share, Quarterly Journal of Economics (2014), Presented by Sergio Feijoo, March 29, 2017

Kautsky, Karl: Der Imperialismus, in: Die Neue Zeit 32-II., 1914, in: English: Karl Kautsky: Selected Political Writings (edited and translated by Patrick Goode), The Macmillan Press, Hong Kong 1983,

Kemp, Tom: Stalinism in France, New Park Publications, London 1984

Khlebnikov, Alexey: 2018: A year of many challenges for Putin in the Middle East. If Russia fails to meet regional actors’ expectations over Syria, Libya or Israel/Palestine, it will ruin its image as a credible partner, Middle East Eye, January 15, 2018,

Kim, Kwan S.: The Korean Miracle (1962-1980) Revisited: Myths and Realities in Strategy and Development, Kellogg Institute at the University of Notre Dame, Working Paper #166, November 1991

Kincaid, Sally: Women and China: what has changed? Socialist Review, Issue: June 2018,

Kimber, Charlie: Trump ramps up trade wars to boost his flagging support, 18 September 2018, Socialist Worker Issue No. 2622,

Kipp, Jacob W.: Lenin and Clausewitz: The Militarization of Marxism, 1914-1921, in: Military Affairs Vol. 49, 1985

Klare, Michael: Is a War With China on the Horizon? June 19, 2018,

Klein, Fritz (Ed.): Deutschland im ersten Weltkrieg, Vol. 1-3, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1968

____ Neue Studien zum Imperialismus vor 1914, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1980

Klement, Rudolf: Principles and Tactics in War (1938); in The New International (Theoretical journal of the Socialist Workers Party, US-American section of the Fourth International), May 1938, Vol. 4, No. 5,

Kolbl, Otto: Chinese development,

Kolo, Vincent: ‘Belt and Road’: Imperialism with Chinese characteristics. Gigantic Belt and Road infrastructure plan – spearhead for Chinese dictatorship’s economic and geopolitical strategy, February 19, 2018

Kolonickij, Boris: 100 Jahre und kein Ende. Sowjetische Historiker und der Erste Weltkrieg, in: Osteuropa Jg. 64 (2014), Bd. 2-4

Kowalewski, Zbigniew Marcin: Ukraine: Russian White Guards in the Donbass, 29 June, 2014,

Kowner, Rotem: The Impact of the Russo-Japanese War, Routledge, New York 2007

Kozhemyako, Viktor: How to protect the Russian language? 15.06.2012,

Kreiner, Josef (Ed.): Der Russisch-Japanische Krieg (1904/05), V&R unipress, Göttingen 2005

Kroeber, Arthur R.: China’s Economy. What Everyone Needs To Know, Oxford University Press, New York 2016

Kroll, Luisa and Kerry A. Dolan: Forbes 2017 Billionaires List: Meet The Richest People On The Planet, 20.3.2017,

Kuczynski, Jürgen: Studien zur Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft, Berlin 1952

Kumaran Ira: French Left Front promotes war in Mali, WSWS, 22 January 2013,

Kusber, Jan: Krieg und Revolution in Russland 1904-1906. Das Militär im Verhältnis zu Wirtschaft, Autokratie und Gesellschaft, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1997

L’intervention jugée nécessaire par les députés, 16 Janvier, 2013,

Lademacher, Horst: Die Zimmerwalder Bewegung. Vol. 1 and 2, Den Haag 1967

Landes, David S.: The Unbound Prometheus. Technological change and industrial development in Western Europe from 1750 to the present, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1969

Laruelle, Marlene: Russian Eurasianism: An Ideology of Empire, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2008

Laschitza, Annelis: Zur Rolle des Zentrismus 1911/12. Ein Beitrag über den Zusammenhang von Imperialismus und Opportunismus, in: Fritz Klein (Ed.): Studien zum deutschen Imperialismus vor 1914, Berlin 1976

Lavrov, P. L.: Die Pariser Kommune vom 18. März 1871, Verlag Klaus Wagenbach, Berlin 1971;

Laverycev, Vladimir: Der staatsmonopolistische Kapitalismus in Rußland. Ergebnisse und Aufgaben der weiteren Forschung, in: Jahrbuch für Geschichte der sozialistischen Länder Europas, Jg. 29, Berlin 1985

League for the Fifth International: Resolution on Syria, 02/03/2017,

League for the Revolutionary Communist International: The Degenerated Revolution: The Origin and Nature of the Stalinist States,

____ Barbaric Trotskyism: a History of Morenoism (1992), Part 1 and 2, and

____ Russian Troops Out! Self-determination for Chechnya! Joint Statement of the LRCI and the Trotskyist Faction, 30.06.1996,

Leckey, Colum: David Riazanov and Russian Marxism, in: Russian History/Histoire Russe, Vol. 22, N° 2 (1995)

Lenin, Vladimir Illich: The Autocracy and the Proletariat (1904), in: Lenin Collected Works (LCW) Vol. 8, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1960-1980

____ The Fall of Port Arthur (1905), in: LCW Vol. 8

____ Certain Features of the Historical Development of Marxism (1910); in: LCW 17

____ Word and Deed (1913); in: LCW 19

____ Conspectus of Hegel’s Science of Logic (1914); in: Collected Works Vol. 38

____ The European War and International Socialism (1914); in: LCW 21

____ The War and Russian Social-Democracy (1914); in: LCW 21

____ The Position and Tasks of the Socialist International (1914), in: LCW Vol. 21

____ The European War and International Socialism (1914); in: LCW 21

____ Under A False Flag (1915); in: LCW Vol. 21

____ On the Question of Dialectics (1915); in: LCW Vol. 38

____ The revolutionary Proletariat and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1915); in: LCW Vol. 21

____ The Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. Groups Abroad (1915); in LCW 21

____ Preface to N. Bukharin’s Pamphlet, Imperialism and the World Economy (1915), in: LCW Vol. 22

____ Opportunism and Collapse of Second International (1915), in: LCW 22

____ The Collapse of the Second International (1915), in: LCW Vol. 21

____ On the Two Lines in the Revolution (1915), in: LCW Vol. 21

____ On the Slogan for a United States of Europe (1915), in: LCW 21

____ Social-Chauvinist Policy Behind A Cover Of Internationalist Phrases (1915); in: CW Vol. 21

____ Imperialism and Socialism in Italy (1915), in: LCW Vol. 21

____ The Defeat of one’s own Government in the Imperialist War (1915); in: LCW 21

____ The Junius Pamphlet (1916); in: LCW 22

____ The Discussion on Self-Determination Summed Up (1916); in: CW Vol. 22

____ German and Non-German Chauvinism (1916); in: LCW 22

____ The Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1916); in: LCW Vol. 22

____ Imperialism. The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916); in: LCW Vol. 22

____ Imperialism and the Split in Socialism (1916); in: LCW Vol. 23

____ A Caricature of Marxism and Imperialist Economism (1916); in: LCW Vol. 23

____ The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution (1916); in: LCW Vol. 23

____ War and Revolution (1917), in: LCW 24

____ The Impending Catastrophe and how to Combat it (1917); in: LCW Vol. 25

____ The State and Revolution. The Marxist Theory of the State and the Tasks of the Proletariat in the Revolution (1917), in: LCW Vol. 25

____ The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky (1918), in: LCW Vol. 25

____ Report on the Review of the Programme and on Changing the Name of the Party, March 8 (1918), in: LCW Vol. 27

____ The Heroes of the Berne International (1919); in: LCW 29

____ Speech Closing The Debate On The Party Programme, Eight Congress of the R.C.P.(B.) March 18-23, 1919, in: LCW Vol. 29

____ The Constituent Assembly Elections and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, in: LCW 30

____ The Third Congress of the Communist International, Speeches At A Meeting Of Members Of The German, Polish, Czechoslovak, Hungarian And Italian Delegations, 11.7.1921, in: LCW Vol. 42

____ Notes on the Tasks of our Delegation at The Hague (1922), in: LCW Vol. 33

____ On the Question of Imperialism, in: LCW 39

____ Sämtliche Werke, Band XVIII (Der imperialistische Krieg 1914-15), Verlag für Literatur und Politik, Wien 1929

____ Clausewitz’ Werk ‘Vom Kriege’. Auszüge und Randglossen, Verlag des Ministeriums für nationale Landesverteidgung, Berlin 1957

____ and G. Zinoviev: Socialism and War. The Attitude of the R.S.D.L.P. toward the War (1915); in: LCW 21

Leonard, Jenny, Josh Wingrove, Jennifer Jacobs, and Andrew Mayeda: Trump Clinches Rebranded Nafta as Canada Joins Pact With Mexico, 1. Oktober 2018,

Lieven, D. C. B.: Russia and the Origins of the First World War, Palgrave Macmillan, London 1983

Linke, Horst Gunther: Das zarische Russland und der Erste Weltkrieg. Diplomatie und Kriegsziele 1914-1917, Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München 1982

LINKE: LINKE weist Antisemitismus-Vorwürfe zurück. Der Parteivorstand der LINKEN hat am 21. Mai 2011 ohne Gegenstimmen die folgende Erklärung verabschiedet:

____ Parliamentary Group of the LINKE: Entschieden gegen Antisemitismus, 8. Juni 2011,

Lisan, Ivan: Weimar republic to Reich, 01.02.2016,

Lissagaray, Prosper: Geschichte der Kommune von 1871, Rütten & Loening, Berlin 1956

Lo, Bobo: Russia and the new world order, Chatham House, London 2015

Lopes, Tiago Camarinha: Marx and Marini on Absolute and Relative Surplus Value, on: International Critical Thought, Vol. 3, Issue 2 (2013)

____ and Mário Costa de Paiva Guimarães Júnior: Trotsky’s Law of Uneven and Combined Development in Marini’s Dialectics of Dependency, Fourth Annual Conference in Political Economy, July 9-11, 2013, The Hague, The Netherlands

Longworth, Philip: Peasant leadership and the Pugachev revolt, in: The Journal of Peasant Studies, 2:2 (1975)

Löw, Raimund: Der Zerfall der Kleinen Internationale: Nationalitätenkonflikte in der Arbeiterbewegung des alten Österreich (1889-1914), Europaverlag, Wien 1984

Löwy, Michel: Marxists and the National Question, in: New Left Review 96, March-April 1976

Ludeña, Miguel Perez: Adapting to the Latin American experience; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012

Luft, Paul: Strategische Interessen und Anleihenpolitik Rußlands im Iran, in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft Vol. 1 (1975), No. 3

Luxemburg, Rosa: Peace Utopias (1911), in: Richard B. Day and Daniel F. Gaido (Eds): Discovering Imperialism: Social Democracy to World War I, Historical Materialism Book Series Vol. 33, Leiden 2012, online:

Maddison, Angus: The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, Vol. 1, 2001

Maito, Esteban Ezequiel: The historical transience of capital. The downward trend in the rate of profit since XIX century, 2014

Mandel, Ernest: Die EWG und die Konkurrenz Europa – USA, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt a.M. 1968

____ The Meaning of the Second World War, Verso, London 1986

Mandelbaum, Kurt: Sozialdemokratie und Imperialismus (1928), in: Kurt Mandelbaum: Sozialdemokratie und Leninismus, Rotbuch Verlag, Berlin 1974

Marini, Ruy Mauro: Brazilian Subimperialism, in: Monthly Review Vol. 23, No. 9 (February 1972)

Marshall, Alex: The Caucasus under Soviet rule, Routledge, London 2010

Martin, Neil A.: Marxism, Nationalism, and Russia, in: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 29, No. 2 (April-June 1968)

Martin, Simon Zamora: Neue Eskalationsstufe im Handelskrieg der USA gegen China, 19. Sep 2018,

Martow, Julius: Geschichte der russischen Sozialdemokratie (1918/26), Erlangen 1973

Marx, Karl: The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852), in: Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 11

____ The Civil War in France, in: MECW, Vol. 22

____ Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie; in: MECW, Vol. 29

____ Die Geschichte der Geheimdiplomatie des 18. Jahrhunderts. Über den asiatischen Ursprung der russischen Despotie, Berlin, Olle & Wolter, Berlin 1977

____ The Eastern Question. A Reprint of Letters written 1853-1856 dealing with the events of the Crimean War, Edited by Eleanor Marx Aveling and Edward Aveling, Swan Sonnenschein & Co, London 1897

____ and Frederick Engels: Manifesto of the Communist Party (1847), in: MECW Vol. 6

____ and Friedrich Engels: German Foreign Policy and the Latest Events in Prague (in: Neue Rheinische Zeitung 12 July 1848), in: MECW Vol. 7

McCurry, Justin: Japan to get first aircraft carrier since second world war amid China concerns, 29 Nov 2018

McKinsey Global Institute: Global growth: Can productivity save the day in an aging world? January 2015

Merli, Francesco: Russian annexation of Crimea – What consequences for world relations? 21 March 2014

Meier, Manfred: Nachbeben des Brexit – Zur Rechtswende von L5I: das „JA“ zum Verbleib in der EU, August 2016,

Meyer, Jürgen: »Maintenant le Peuple« (MLP, Jetzt das Volk): Spaltung der Europäischen Linken oder neue linke Sammlungsbewegung? 12. Juli 2018,-jetzt-das-volk-spaltung-der-europ%C3%A4ischen-linken-oder-neue-linke-sammlungsbewegung

Michael, Franz and Chung-li Chang: The Taiping Rebellion. History and Documents Vol.1, University of Washington Press, London 1966

Mirovalev, Mansur: Russia’s Communist Party turns to the Orthodox Church. After decades of militant atheism, Russian Communists turn to religious establishment to gain supporters, 2016-12-12,

Mitina, Darya: Comment on the Taliban in Afghanistan, Не думала, чтo дoживу дo такoгo пoзoрища, November 10th, 2018,

Modrow, Hans, Manfred Sohn: Vor dem großen Sprung? Überblick über die Politik der Japanischen Kommunistischen Partei, GNN-Verlag, Schkeuditz 2000

Moneta, Jakob: Die Kolonialpolitik der französischen KP, Hannover 1968

Morena, Mariana: Sanciones cruzadas entre Estados Unidos y China: ¿Hacia una “guerra comercial global”?

Morley, Daniel: China and the World Economy in 2016: “Sell Everything”, 12 January 2016

Motojirō, Akashi: Rakka ryusui: Colonel Akashi’s Report on His Secret Cooperation with the Russian Revolutionary Parties during the Russo-Japanese War. O. Fält and A. Kujala (Eds.), Studia Historica 31, Helsinki, 1988

Mottas, Nikos: Was werden die griechischen Kommunisten im Falle eines Krieges tun?; in: Einheit und Widerspruch (Theoretisches und Diskussionsorgan der Partei der Arbeit Österreichs), Heft 6, Juni 2018,

Mulholland, Niall: Trump orders missile strikes against Shayrat air base, Committee for a Workers’ International, The Socialist issue 944, 12 April 2017

Mutual interests strengthen South Africa-China relations, 2018-May-29,

Münz, Rainer and Heinz Fassmann: Migrants in Europe and their Economic Position: Evidence from the European Labour Force Survey and from Other Sources (2004)

Nagle, Angela: The Left Case against Open Borders, in: American Affairs, Volume II, Number 4 (Winter 2018),

Nation, R. Craig: War on War, Duke University Press, Durham 1989

Navarro, Peter: The Coming China Wars – Where They Will Be Fought and How They Can Be Won, Financial Times Press, New Jersey 2006

____ Crouching Tiger: What China’s Militarism Means for the World, Prometheus Books, New York 2015;

____ and Greg Autry: Death by China: Confronting the Dragon – A Global Call to Action for the Western World, Pearson Education, New Jersey 2011

Nayyar, Deepak: The South in the World Economy: Past, Present and Future, UNDP Human Development Report Office, Occasional Paper 2013/01

Nocera, Joe: This Map Shows Why Trump Couldn’t Kill Nafta, 1. Oktober 2018,

Nussbaum, Helga: Der europäische Wirtschaftsraum. Verflechtung, Angleichung, Diskrepanz, in: Fritz Klein / Karl Otmar von Aretin (Eds): Europea um 1900, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1989

OKDE: Prespa Agreement – Referendum in neighboring Macedonia, 24.9.2018,

Oborne, Peter: How US sanctions on Iran could herald a profound global power shift, 2 November 2018

Omissi, David: The Sepoy and the Raj: The Indian Army, 1860–1940, Studies in Military and Strategic History, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London 1994.

Omura, Tomohiro: The Maturity of Emerging Economies and New Developments in the Global Economy, Mitsui Global Strategic Studies Institute Monthly Report, April 2017

Pal, Adam: Pakistan: The ever growing power of China, 02 March 2017, power-of-china.htm

Parariga, Aleka (KKE General Secretary): The Position of Greece within International Capitalism, Article for “El Machete,” the Theoretical and Political Review of the CP of Mexico,

Parslow, Kevin (Socialist Party, CWI in England & Wales): CWI School 2018: 10 years after 2007/8 crisis, capitalism has solved nothing, 08 August 2018

Partido Obrero: Contribution to the international conference debate (adopted by the National Committee of Partido Obrero), 21.3.2018,

____, PT (Uruguay), DIP (Turkey), EEK (Greece): Declaration of the International Conference, 13.4.2018,

Pasha: China: Deepening crisis and mass resistance, Socialist Action (CWI in Hong Kong), 14 August 2018

Pavlov, Dmitrii B.: Japanese Money and the Russian Revolution, 1904-1905, in: Acta Slavica Iaponica, No. 11 (1993)

Pearce, Brian: Lenin and Trotsky on Pacifism and Defeatism, in: Labour Review, Vol. 6 (1961), No. 1,

Pei, Minxin: China’s Crony Capitalism. The Dynamics of Regime Decay, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 2016

____ The Sino-American cold war’s collateral damage. October 19, 2018

Pentagon: Assessing and Strengthening the Manufacturing and Defense Industrial Base and Supply Chain Resiliency of the United States, Report to President Donald J. Trump by the Interagency Task Force in Fulfillment of Executive Order 13806, September 2018

Perlez, Jane: Xi Jinping Extends Power, and China Braces for a New Cold War, 27 February 2018 NYT,

Pesek, William: Abe’s Japan tries a decidedly foreign concept, November 19, 2018

Petrov, Ju.A. : Die Bourgeoisie Rußlands zu Beginn des 20.Jahrhunderts: Versuche einer politischen Konsolidierung, in: Berliner Jahrbuch für osteuropäische Geschichte, 1997

Peters, Dorothea: Politische und gesellschaftliche Vorstellungen in der Aufstandsbewegung unter Pugačev (1773–1775). Wiesbaden, Berlin 1973

Pinchuk, Denis, Maria Kiselyova: ‘No miracles’: labor shortage set to hit Russia’s GDP, Reuters, October 3, 2017

Plate, Alice: Der Pugačev-Aufstand: Kosakenherrlichkeit oder sozialer Protest, in: Heinz-Dietrich Löwe: Volksaufstände in Rußland. Von der Zeit der Wirren bis zur «Grünen Revolution» gegen die Sowjetherrschaft, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2006

Platt, Stephen R.: Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom: China, the West, and the epic story of the Taiping Civil War, Alfred A. Knopf, New York 2012

Plucinska, Joanna, Anna Koper: Poland arrests two over spying allegations, including Huawei employee, January 11, 2019 /

Podkaminer, Leon: Has Trade Been Driving Global Economic Growth, Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies 2016, Working Paper 131

Politsturm: Почему Путин помог Майдану победить? (Why Putin helped Maidan to win), 16.08.2018,

PONARS Eurasia: Russian Foreign Policy after Crimea – How To Understand And Address It, Policy Perspectives, September 2017

M. N. Pokrovskii: Aus den Geheim-Archiven des Zaren. Ein Beitrag zur Frage nach den Urhebern des Weltkrieges, August Scherl, Berlin 1919

____ Historische Aufsätze. Ein Sammelband, Verlag für Literatur und Politik, Wien und Berlin 1928

____ Geschichte Russlands von seiner Entstehung bis zur neuesten Zeit, C.L.Hirschfeld Verlag, Leipzig 1929

____ Russische Geschichte, Berlin 1930

____ Vorwort des russischen Herausgebers, in: Otto Hoetzsch (Ed.): Internationale Beziehungen im Zeitalter des Imperialismus, Reihe 1, 1. Band, Verlag von Reimar Hobbing, Berlin 1931

____ Russia in World History; Selected Essays, Edited by Roman Szporluk, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1970

Pouliopoulos, Pantelis: Communists and the Macedonian Question [May 1940], Republished in Spartakos No. 30, 1991,

PravdaReport: Russia’s gold reserves exceed 2,000 tons for the first time, 02 Nov 2018,

PricewaterhouseCoopers: The Long View. How will the global economic order change by 2050? February 2017

Pröbsting, Michael: Der kapitalistische Aufholprozeß in Südkorea und Taiwan; in: Revolutionärer Marxismus Nr. 20 (1996). A shortened version of this article appeared as “Capitalist Development on South Korea and Taiwan” in: Trotskyist International No. 21 (1997),

____ Imperialism, Globalization and the Decline of Capitalism (2008), in: Richard Brenner, Michael Pröbsting, Keith Spencer: The Credit Crunch – A Marxist Analysis, London 2008,

____ Die Frage der Vereinigung Europas im Lichte der marxistischen Theorie. Zur Frage eines supranationalen Staatsapparates des EU-Imperialismus und der marxistischen Staatstheorie. Die Diskussion zur Losung der Vereinigten Sozialistischen Staaten von Europa bei Lenin und Trotzki und ihre Anwendung unter den heutigen Bedingungen des Klassenkampfes, in: Unter der Fahne der Revolution Nr. 2/3 (2008),

____ Marxismus, Migration und revolutionäre Integration (2010); in: Der Weg des Revolutionären Kommunismus, Nr. 7, A summary of this study in English-language: Michael Pröbsting: Marxism, Migration and revolutionary Integration, in: Revolutionary Communism, No. 1 (English-language Journal of the RCIT),

____ Die halbe Revolution. Lehren und Perspektiven des arabischen Aufstandes, in: Der Weg des Revolutionären Kommunismus, Nr. 8 (2011),

____ The August uprising of the poor and nationally and racially oppressed in Britain: What would a revolutionary organisation have done?, 18.8.2011,

____ Five days that shook Britain but didn’t wake up the left. The bankruptcy of the left during the August uprising of the oppressed in Britain: Its features, its roots and the way forward, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 1 (September 2011),

Greece: For a Workers’ Government! Critical electoral support for SYRIZA and KKE! Workers: Organize and prepare yourselves for the struggle for power! 6.6.2012,

____ After SYRIZA’s victory in the Greek elections: The question of a Workers Government and the revolutionary way forward, June 2012,

____ China‘s transformation into an imperialist power. A study of the economic, political and military aspects of China as a Great Power (2012), in: Revolutionary Communism No. 4,

____ No to chauvinist war-mongering by Japanese and Chinese imperialism! 23.9.2012,

____ Liberation Struggles and Imperialist Interference. The failure of sectarian “anti-imperialism” in the West: Some general considerations from the Marxist point of view and the example of the democratic revolution in Libya in 2011, Autumn 2012,

____ The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital. Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, RCIT Books, Vienna 2013,

____ On some Questions of the Zionist Oppression and the Permanent Revolution in Palestine“, in: Revolutionary Communism Nr. 10 (June 2013),

____ Cuba’s Revolution Sold Out? The Road from Revolution to the Restoration of Capitalism, RCIT Books, Vienna 2013,

____ The Coup d’État in Egypt and the Bankruptcy of the Left’s “Army Socialism”, August 2013,

____ The CWI’s “Socialist” Zionism and the Palestinian Liberation Struggle. A Reply from the RCIT, 15.9.2014,

____ Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire – A Reply to our Critics, 18 March 2014, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 21,

____ Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism. Another Reply to Our Critics Who Deny Russia’s Imperialist Character, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 25, August 2014,

____ The CWI’s “Socialist” Zionism and the Palestinian Liberation Struggle. A Reply from the RCIT, 15.9.2014,

____ The Uprising in East Ukraine and Russian Imperialism. An Analysis of Recent Developments in the Ukrainian Civil War and their Consequences for Revolutionary Tactics, 22.October 2014,

____ The China Question and the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, December 2014,

____ Building the Revolutionary Party in Theory and Practice. Looking Back and Ahead after 25 Years of Organized Struggle for Bolshevism, Vienna 2014,

____ France: “Communist” Party fails to Vote in Parliament against Imperialist War in Iraq! 15.1.2015,

____ After the Paris Attack: Socialists must Join Hands with Muslim People Against Imperialism and Racism! Reformist and Centrist Forces try to derail the Workers Movement by Failing to Stand up for Solidarity with the Muslims and Against Imperialist War-Mongering! 17.1.2015,

____ The Racist Character of Charlie Hebdo and the pro-imperialist campaign “Je Suis Charlie”. Solidarity with Muslim People! NOT Solidarity with Charlie Hebdo! 17.1.2015,

____ The British Left and the EU-Referendum: The Many Faces of pro-UK or pro-EU Social-Imperialism. An analysis of the left’s failure to fight for an independent, internationalist and socialist stance both against British as well as European imperialism, Revolutionary Communism Nr. 40, August 2015

____ Summary of our main differences with the UIT-CI, October 2015,

____ Summary of Our Main Differences with the FLTI, October 2015,

____ China’s “Socialist“ Billionaires, 16.11.2015,

____ Greece: A Modern Semi-Colony. The Contradictory Development of Greek Capitalism, Its Failed Attempts to Become a Minor Imperialist Power, and Its Present Situation as an Advanced Semi-Colonial Country with Some Specific Features, RCIT Books, Vienna 2015,,

____ Migration and Super-exploitation: Marxist Theory and the Role of Migration in the present Period of Capitalist Decay, in: Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory (Volume 43, Issue 3-4, 2015)

____ The Involuntary Self-Exposure of the WSWS. A Brief Reply to a Lengthy Attack by David North’s WSWS against the RCIT, 18.4.2016,

____ Marxism and the United Front Tactic Today. The Struggle for Proletarian Hegemony in the Liberation Movement in Semi-Colonial and Imperialist Countries in the present Period, RCIT Books, Vienna 2016,

____ Capitalism Today and the Law of Uneven Development: The Marxist Tradition and its Application in the Present Historic Period, in: Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory, Volume 44, Issue 4, (2016),

____ Marxism, the European Union and Brexit. The L5I and the European Union: A Right Turn away from Marxism. The recent change in the L5I’s position towards the support for EU membership represents a shift away from its own tradition, of the Marxist method, and of the facts; August 2016, in: Revolutionary Communist No. 55,

____ Does the EU Represent “Bourgeois Democratic Progress”? Once again, on the EU and the Tactics of the Working Class – An Addendum to our Criticism of the L5I’s Turn to the Right and Its Support for EU Membership, 16.09.2016,

____ The Meaning, Consequences and Lessons of Trump‘s Victory. On the Lessons of the US Presidential Election Outcome and the Perspectives for the Domestic and International Class Struggle, 24.November 2016,

____ Is the Syrian Revolution at its End? Is Third Camp Abstentionism Justified? An essay on the organs of popular power in the liberated area of Syria, on the character of the different sectors of the Syrian rebels, and on the failure of those leftists who deserted the Syrian Revolution, 5 April 2017,

____ Patriotic “Anti-Capitalism” for Fools. Yet Again on the CWG/LCC’s Support for “Workers’” Immigration Control and Protectionism in the US, 30.5.2017,

____ Dialectics and Wars in the Present Period. Preface to Rudolf Klement’s Principles and Tactics in War, June 2017,

____ The China-India Conflict: Its Causes and Consequences. What are the background and the nature of the tensions between China and India in the Sikkim border region? What should be the tactical conclusions for Socialists and Activists of the Liberation Movements? 18 August 2017, Revolutionary Communism No. 71,

____ Michael Pröbsting: US Aggression against North Korea: The CWI’s “Socialist” Pacifism, 12.09.2017,

____ Catalunya’s Struggle for Independence and its Pseudo-“Left-Wing” Critiques, 27.10.2017,

____ World Perspectives 2018: A World Pregnant with Wars and Popular Uprisings. Theses on the World Situation, the Perspectives for Class Struggle and the Tasks of Revolutionaries, RCIT Books, Vienna 2018,

____ Syria and Great Power Rivalry: The Failure of the „Left“. The bleeding Syrian Revolution and the recent Escalation of Inter-Imperialist Rivalry between the US and Russia – A Marxist Critique of Social Democracy, Stalinism and Centrism, 21 April 2018,

____ The Catastrophic Failure of the Theory of “Catastrophism”. On the Marxist Theory of Capitalist Breakdown and its Misinterpretation by the Partido Obrero (Argentina) and its “Coordinating Committee for the Refoundation of the Fourth International”, RCIT Pamphlet, May 2018,

____ The Mad Man plays with fire, again. A Commentary on Trump’s Decision to Pull the U.S. out of the Iran Nuclear Deal, 9 May 2018,

____ Where Do Socialists Stand in Face of the Looming Global Trade War? A Showcase of the Practical Consequences of the Assessment of the Class Character of the Chinese State, 17 June 2018,

____ The Global Trade War has Begun. What is its Meaning and what should be the Response of Socialists?, 13 July 2018,

____ Again on Capitalist Restoration in North Korea, 12 June 2018,

____ In What Sense Can One Speak of Capitalist Restoration in North Korea? Reply to Several Objections Raised by the Polish Comrades of “Władza Rad”, 21 June 2018,

____ Has Capitalist Restoration in North Korea Crossed the Rubicon or Not? Reply to a Polemic of Władza Rad (Poland), 15 July 2018,

____ 63,000 Troops. Russian Imperialist Forces back up the Reactionary Assad Regime in Syria, 27.08.2018,

____ China: Defend the Muslim Uyghurs against Oppression! 18.10.2018,

____ China: A Paradise for Billionaires. The latest UBS/PwC Report about the Global Super-Rich Delivers another Crushing Blow to the Stalinist Myth of China’s “Socialism”, 27.10.2018,

____ The Global Super-Rich Get Even Richer. UBS/PwC Publish their latest Report about the World’s Billionaires, 27.10.2018,

____ and Almedina Gunić: How the Pentagon Views the World Situation. A New Study by the US Military Confirms Marxists’ Analysis of the Current Historic Period, 25 July 2017,

____ and Andrew Walton: The Slogan of “Workers’” Immigration Control: A Concession to Social-Chauvinism, 27.3.2017,

____ and Andrew Walton: A Social-Chauvinist Defence of the Indefensible. Another Reply to the CWG/LCC’s Support for “Workers’” Immigration Control, 14.5.2017,

Pushkin, Alexander: Geschichte des Pugatschew’schen Aufruhrs, Stuttgart 1840

Rabkor: Editorial: Russia and Crimea, 24.03.2014,

____ Стрелков рассказал, что сейчас объединяет “красных” и “белых”, 24.01.2015

Rachel, Lukasz and Thomas D Smith: Secular drivers of the global real interest rate, Bank of England, Staff Working Paper No. 571, December 2015

Radek, Karl: Our Struggle against Imperialism (1912), in Richard B. Day and Daniel F. Gaido (Eds): Discovering Imperialism: Social Democracy to World War I, Historical Materialism Book Series Vol. 33, Leiden 2012

Raeff, Marc: Pugachev’s Rebellion, in: Robert Forster (Ed.): Preconditions of Revolution in Early Modern Europe, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1970

Rauch, Georg von: Rußland im Zeitalter des Nationalismus und Imperialismus (1856-1917), Kopernikus Verlag, München 1961

RED*LIBERATION (Bulletin of Socialists in the Labour Party): UK: No to Cameron’s Trap: Neither YES nor NO to UK membership in the EU! For Abstention in the Referendum! We call on Momentum to create a “Third Camp” and to launch a socialist and internationalist campaign! For international Unity of the British, Migrant and European Workers! 25 February 2016,

Reinl, James: Is a US-China war in Asia inevitable? 2018-10-30

Reisberg, Arnold: Lenin und die Zimmerwalder Bewegung. Berlin 1966.

Restrepo-Echavarria, Paulina and Maria A. Arias: Tigers, Tiger Cubs and Economic Growth, May 25, 2017

Revolutionary Communist International Tendency: Perspectives on the Greek Revolution, 10.11.2011,

____ The Revolutionary Communist Manifesto, 2012,

____ Victory! The Charge against RKOB Spokesperson and Palestine Solidarity Activist Johannes Wiener has been dropped! 10.1.2013,

____ No War against North Korea! Call for Protests on the Day when a War starts! 6.4.2013,

____ New Imperialist Threats in East Asia: Hands off North Korea! 12.3.2013,

____ France after the Attacks in Paris: Defend the Muslim People against Imperialist Wars, Chauvinist Hatemongering, and State Repression! 9.1.2015,;

____ General Sisi, Hollande, Obama: Hands Off Libya! Defeat General Haftars’ Imperialist Lackeys! Down with the Daash-Gang of Killers! For a Workers’ and Popular Government! 26.2.2015,

____ Macedonia: Stop the Police Violence! Support the National Self-Determination of the Albanian Minority! For a Workers and Peasants Government! For a Socialist Federation of the Balkan People! 8.5.2015,

____ Europe / North Africa: Storm the Gates of Rome! Open Borders for Refugees! Stop the Imperialist EU-War against Refugees! No to the Preparations for an Imperialist Aggression against Libya! 22.5.2015,

____ Terror in Paris is the Result of Imperialist Terror in the Middle East! Stop France’s and other Imperialist Powers’ Warmongering! No Mobilization of the Army inside France! Defend the Muslim Peoples against Chauvinist Hatemongering and State Repression! 14.11.2015,

____ Increasing Instability and Militarization in the European Union. On the Tasks of Revolutionaries in the New Political Phase which has Opened in Europe after the Terrorist Attack in Paris, 08.12.2015,

____ Stop the US Bombing of Libya! 23.2.2016,

____ Revolution and Counterrevolution in the Arab World: An Acid Test for Revolutionaries,

____ and RCIT Britain: Boycott Cameron’s Trap: Neither Brussels, nor Downing Street! For Abstention in Britain’s EU-Referendum! For international Unity and Struggle of the Workers and Oppressed! Fight against both British as well as European Imperialism! Forward to the United Socialist States of Europe, 2 August 2015,

____ Manifesto for Revolutionary Liberation, 2016,

____ Advancing Counterrevolution and Acceleration of Class Contradictions Mark the Opening of a New Political Phase. Theses on the World Situation, the Perspectives for Class Struggle and the Tasks of Revolutionaries (January 2016), in: Revolutionary Communism No. 46,

____ TEK YOL DEVRIM! Action Program for Turkey by Sınıf Savaşı (Section of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency in Turkey), October 2016,

____ After the BREXIT Vote – Stormy times ahead for the workers and oppressed in Britain, 24.6.2016,

____ In the Wake of the PSTU/LIT-CI Split, What Lessons Can Be Learned? An Open Letter to Members and Sympathizers of the International Workers League (Fourth International), 11.7.2016,

____ Stop Judicial Prosecution for Solidarity with Palestine! A Call to the Austrian State to Drop Its Charges against Michael Pröbsting!

____ The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor is a Project of Chinese Imperialism for the Colonialization of Pakistan! Joint Statement of the International Secretariat of the RCIT and the Revolutionary Workers Organization (Pakistani Section of the RCIT), 22.1.2017,

____ North Korea: Stop the War Mongering of US Imperialism! 4 April 2017,

____ North Korea: Stop the American Warmongers! Defend North Korea against the Madman of US Imperialism! Down with the imperialist sanctions against North Korea! No political support for the Stalinist Kim Regime! 11 August 2017,

____ Where does the RCIT Stand on Russia’s Occupation of Chechnya?

____ Global Trade War: No to Great Power Jingoism in West and East! Neither Imperialist Globalization nor Imperialist Protectionism! For International Solidarity and Joint Struggle of the Working Class and Oppressed People! 4 July 2018,

____ US Sanctions against Russia, Iran, and North Korea are an Economic Declaration of War, 30 July 2017,

____ Six Points for a Platform of Revolutionary Unity Today. A Proposal from the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), February 2018,

____ Warmongering in the Middle East: Down with all Imperialist Great Powers and Capitalist Dictatorships! Joint Statement of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), Alkebulan School of Black Studies (Kenya), Pacesetters Movement (Nigeria), Pan-Afrikan Consciousness Renaissance (Nigeria), Marxist Group ‘Class Politics’ (Russia), and Sınıf Savaşı (Turkey), 13 May 2018,

____ Has the Trump-Kim Summit Opened the Road to Peace in East Asia? 14.06.2018,

____ Theses on Revolutionary Defeatism in Imperialist States, 8 September 2018,

____ Trump threatens to withdraw from INF Treaty: No to a New Imperialist Arms Race! The Acceleration of Rivalry between the Great Powers Increases the Risks of World War III, 25 October 2018,

____ Central America / Mexico / U.S.: Solidarity with the Migrants’ Caravan! 01.11.2018,

____ France: Defend the “Yellow Vests” Movement against State Repression! 03.12.2018,

____ and MGKP (Russia): Military Escalation between Russia and Ukraine at the Kerch Strait. Down with the Reactionary Warmongering on Both Sides! 28 November 2018,

Revolutionary Communist Organization LIBERATION (Austrian Section of the RCIT): Bericht der RKOB-Delegation über ihren Aufenthalt in London 2011,,

____ Report on May Day 2016 in Austria: Joint Resistance against Racist Attacks. Forceful, militant, internationalist demonstration despite racist attacks, Report (with Pictures and Videos) on the multinational, internationalist demonstration in Vienna marking May Day 2016 organized by the Revolutionary Communist Organization LIBERATION,

____ KPÖ schließt RKOB aus und macht den Weg frei für Frauenschläger der Anti-Nationalen Szene. Wiederholter körperlicher Angriff auf Genossin Gunić am Volksstimmefest, Bericht der Revolutionär-Kommunistischen Organisation BEFREIUNG zum Volksstimmefest 2016, 05.09.2016,

____ Austria: “Left-Wing” Zionists Attack Arab Migrants at Demonstration in Solidarity with Refugees! Report (with Pictures and Videos) from the anti-racist Demonstration on 26 November in Vienna by the Austrian Section of the RCIT, 27.11.2016,

____ Austria: Right-Wing Party Opens Parliamentary Inquiry against the RCIT Section. Biggest Opposition Party smears the Trotskyists for alleged “Left-Wing Extremism”, “Antisemitism” and “Radical Islamism” and asks the Federal Ministry of the Interior to officially investigate them, 29.01.2017,

____ Public Prosecution Department in Vienna Stops Investigation against Michael Pröbsting, 09.02.2017,

____ Austria: Islamophobic Racism on the Rise! Solidarity with the Muslim Brothers and Sisters! No to the Closure of 7 Mosques and the Expulsion of 40 Imams and their Families! 8. June 2018,

Remnick, David: The Increasing Unfitness of Donald Trump. The West Wing has come to resemble the dankest realms of Twitter, in which everyone is racked with paranoia and everyone despises everyone else, January 15, 2018,

Riddell, John: Lenin’s Struggle for a Revolutionary International, New York: Pathfinder, 1984

Riezler, Kurt (J. J. Ruedorffer): Grundzüge der Weltpolitik in der Gegenwart, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Berlin 1914

Rigault, Raoul: Why French troops are in Mali and why the French Communist Party supports the war, 26 February 2013

Rjazanov, David Borisovič: Vorwort zur MEGA 1927, in: UTOPIE kreativ, H. 206 (December 2007)

____ Karl Marx über den Ursprung der Vorherrschaft Rußlands in Europa. Kritische Untersuchungen, in: Karl Marx, Die Geschichte der Geheimdiplomatie des 18. Jahrhunderts

Roberts, James W.: Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism in Soviet Usage, in: Soviet Studies Vol. 29, Nr. 3 (July 1977)

Roberts, Michael: A world rate of profit. Globalisation and the world economy (2012),

____ Imperialism, globalization and the profitability of capital, in: Rupture Magazine, Issue 1,

Rosdolsky, Roman: Studien über revolutionäre Taktik. Zwei unveröffentlichte Arbeiten über die II. Internationale und über die österreichische Sozialdemokratie, Verlag für das Studium der Arbeiterbewegung, West-Berlin 1973; in English: Imperialist War and the Question of Peace and can be read online here:

____ Engels and the “Nonhistoric” Peoples: The National Question in the Revolution of 1848, Critique Books, Glasgow 1986

Ross, John: The Asian and Chinese economic growth models – implications of modern findings on economic growth, 2009-09-08,

____ Why Are China and India Growing So Fast? State Investment, August 29, 2016,

Ross, Robert: The End of U.S. Naval Dominance in Asia, November 18, 2018,

Rothstein, Theodore: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung in England, Vienna 1929

Rowell, Alex: Small wonder: The global fascist love affair with the Assad regime,

Roy, Kaushik (Ed): The Indian Army in the Two World Wars, History of Warfare 70, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden 2012

Russia Total External Debt,

Russia to develop production facilities in Cuba, 21 Jun, 2016, Russia Today,

Russian companies get green light to mine gold in Venezuela, 26 Dec, 2018

Russian Communist Workers’ Party: On the death of comrade, 24.05.2015,

____ Against war! Against warmongering! 16.04.2018,

Russian Socialist Movement: Программа (Program),

_____ Социализм и загадка наций (No to Imperial language policies!), 27.06.2016,

Ryan, James: ‘Revolution is War’: The Development of the Thought of V. I. Lenin on Violence, 1899–1907, in: The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 89, No. 2 (April 2011)

Safa, Henri: The Impact of Energy on Global Economy, in: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Vol. 7(2017), No. 2

Sanborn, Joshua A.: Russian Imperialism, 1914–2014: Annexationist, Adventurist, or Anxious?, in: Revolutionary Russia, Vol. 27 (2014), No. 2

Schlarp, Karl-Heinz: Ursachen und Entstehung des Ersten Weltkrieges im Lichte der sowjetischen Geschichtsschreibung, Alfred Metzner Verlag, Hamburg 1971

Schmidt, Gustav: Der europäische Imperialismus, R. Oldenburg Verlag, München 1985

Schramm, Gottfried: Das Zarenreich: ein Beispiel für Imperialismus, in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft Vol. 7 (1981), No. 2

Schularick, Moritz: A Tale of two ‘Globalizations’: Capital Flows from Rich to Poor in Two Eras of Global Finance, in: International Journal of Finance and Economics 11 (2006)

Schwartz, Yossi: Egypt: The U.S. Support for the Military Coup and the Left’s ignorance, 11.7.2013,

____ Was the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen a Deformed Workers State? August 2015,

____ Occupied Palestine / Israel: Dead End for the Two-State Solution. The Palestinian Liberation Struggle and the CWI’s Centrist Adaptation to Zionism, 12.11.2015,

____ Why Not to Vote for the Democratic Party in the Forthcoming US Elections Or At Any Other Time, 2.3.2016,

____ Once Again: Opportunism of US Left Exposed. An Analysis of the US 2016 Elections Campaign, 14 August 2016,;

____ Raqqa: Defeat the US Imperialist Offensive! An assessment of the US/SDF/YPG war against Daesh, April 2017,

____ Israel’s Attack on Iranian Forces in Syria, 14.5.2018,

____ Capitalist Trade and the Looming 3rd World War, 15 July 2018,

____ Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism, 16 November 2018,

Seidel, Jamie: President Xi tells military to ‘concentrate preparation for fighting a war’, October 29, 2018,

Semyonov, Alexander: Russian Liberalism and the Problem of Imperial Diversity, in: Matthew Fitzpatrick (Ed): Liberal Imperialism in Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2012

Senn, Alfred Erich: The Russian Revolution in Switzerland, 1914-1917, University of Wisconsin Press, London 1971

Serge, Victor: New Aspects of the Problem of War (August 1926),

Sergeev, Evgeny: Russian Military Intelligence in the War with Japan, 1904–05. Secret operations on land and at sea, Routledge, New York 2007

Sewell, Rob: “Trade wars are good” – Trump threatens fragile world economy, 12 March 2018

Shachtman, Max: Old Garbage in New Pails, in: New International, Vol.5 No.6, June 1939,

Shekhovtsov, Anton: Boris Kagarlitsky, a Kremlin’s mole in the leftist movement,

Shen, Jianguang: China needs to prepare for long-term rivalry with the US even if trade deal is reached, Global Times, 2019/1/9

Sinitsina, Irina: Economic Cooperation Between Russia and Central Asian Countries: Trends and Outlook, 2012

Shlyapnikov, Alexander: On the Eve of 1917 (1923),

Shukow, I. M. (Ed.): Weltgeschichte, VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1963, Vol. 1-10

Singh, Ajit: China’s rise threatens U.S. imperialism, not American people, Monthly Review Online, Apr 09, 2018,

____ A New Era for Socialist China, 24 October 2017,

____ India and China: Rivals or Potential Partners in Liberation? November 2nd, 2017,

Slaughter, Cliff: Lenin and the Imperialist War of 1914-1918, in: Fourth International, Vol. 4, No. 3, November 1967

Slavin, David H.: The French Left and the Rif War, 1924-25: Racism and the Limits of Internationalism, in: Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 26, No. 1, January 1991

Smith, David: Trump hails foreign policy shift on surprise visit to US troops in Iraq, 27 December 2018

Socialist Fight: Defend Syria and Russia: Imperialism out of the Middle East, 14/04/2018

Socialist Party (CWI): Falklands war: what lessons for the labour movement? In: Socialism Today, No 108, April 2007,

_____ British Perspectives 2013 (Congress Document),

“Solidarität mit Serbien”: Jubel für Strache in Belgrad, Der Standard, 5. Mai 2008,

Sontag, Raymond James and James Stuart Beddie (Ed.): Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939-1941. Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office, Department of State, 1948

South China Morning Post: How Russia is boosting its role in Africa with weapons, investment and ‘instructors’, 14 August, 2018,

____ China making two billionaires every week as world’s super-rich become wealthier than ever before, report reveals, 26 October, 2018,

____ China’s private economy set for winter ‘colder and longer than expected’, warns billionaire tycoon, 28 December, 2018,

____ China’s state-owned companies enjoy record profits, even as private sector flounders, 18 January, 2019,

Spector, Maurice: Sanctions and the Coming War (1935), New International, Vol.2 No.7, December 1935,

Statement of the Communist and Workers Parties of Europe condemning the escalation of the imperialist aggressiveness in Syria, 13 April 2018,

Steinberg, John W., Bruce W. Menning, David Schimmelpenninck, Van Der Oye, David Wolff, Shinji Yokote (Eds.): The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective. World War Zero, Vol. I and II, Brill, Leiden 2005 and 2007

Sterk, Andre and Robin van Daalen: Immigration Holds Key to Labor Shortage, Wall Street Journal, June 28, 2011,

Stern, Johannes: Behind the designation of Russia and China as “imperialist”: A case study in theoretical charlatanry, WSWS, 14 April 2016,

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: SIPRI Yearbook 2017 (Summary)

____ SIPRI Yearbook 2018 (Summary)

____ SIPRI Fact Sheet, Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2017, May 2018

____ SIPRI Yearbook 2018, Armaments, Disarmament and International Security

Strauß, Hanno: Von Engels’ „Panslawismus“ zu Marx’ „Geheimdiplomatie“. Eine Herleitung politischer Ambitionen, in: Marx und Russland. Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung Neue Folge 2012, Argument, Hamburg 2014

Strickland, Patrick: Why do Italian fascists adore Syria’s Bashar al-Assad? 14 Feb 2018,

Strobel, Georg W.: Quellen zur Geschichte des Kommunismus in Polen 1878-1918, Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik., Köln 1968

____ Die Partei Rosa Luxemburgs, Lenin und die SPD. Der polnische ‚europäische‘ Internationalismus in der russischen Sozialdemokratie; Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden 1974

Suchkov, Maxim A.: Can Russia, China cooperate on the Middle East? December 12, 2018

Sugasti, Daniel: We repudiate Trump’s threats on more attacks to Syria! LIT-CI, April 10, 2018

Sun, Irene Yuan, Kartik Jayaram, Omid Kassiri: Dance of the lions and dragons. How are Africa and China engaging, and how will the partnership evolve? McKinsey & Company, June 2017

Sumner, B. H.: New Material on the Revolt of Pugachev, in: The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 7, No. 19 (June 1928)

____ New Material on the Revolt of Pugachev: II, in: The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 7, No. 20 (January 1929)

Svensson, Niklas Albin: World trade: Trump sets his eyes on China, 29 March 2018

____ Trump’s war on globalisation, 04 June 2018

____ China: a trade war the bourgeois can get behind, 21 June 2018

____ The real stakes in the Trump-China trade war, 08 October 2018

Taaffe, Peter: The Rise of Militant, London 1995, Chapter 20 “The Falklands/Malvinas War”,

____ Afghanistan, Islam and the Revolutionary Left (2002),

____ A socialist World is possible – the history of the CWI, 31.08.2004

Tarnovskij, K.N. : Probleme des russischen Imperialismus in der sowjetischen Geschichtsschreibung, in: Jahrbuch für Geschichte der sozialistischen Länder Europas, Jg. 27, Berlin 1983

TASS: Russia lost 112 servicemen over three years of counter-terror operation in Syria – MP, September 30, 2018,

Thatcher, Ian D.: Leon Trotsky and World War One August 1914–February 1917, Macmillan Press Ltd, London 2000

____ Late Imperial Russia, Manchester University Press, Manchester 2005

The Associated Press: Retired US General Says War With China Likely in 15 Years, Oct. 24, 2018

The super-cycle lives: EM growth is key, Standard Chartered Bank, Special Report, 06 November 2013

Trotsky, Leon: Die Russische Revolution 1905, Vereinigung Internationaler Verlagsanstalten, Berlin 1923 (republished in Leo Trotzki: Ausgewählte Werke, Vol. 1, Verlag Neuer Kurs, Berlin 1972)

____ Über den russischen Imperialismus (1916), in: Leo Trotzki: Europa im Krieg, Arbeiterpresse Verlag, Essen 1998

____ Our Revolution. Essays on Working-Class and International Revolution, 1904-1917, Henry Holt and Company, New York 1918 (Edited by Moissaye J. Olgin),

____ Speech at the Fourth Congress of the Communist International (1 December 1922), in: John Riddell (Ed.): Toward the United Front. Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the Communist International, 1922, Historical Materialism Book Series, Brill, Leiden 2012

____ Perspectives and Tasks in the East. Speech on the third anniversary of the Communist University for the Toilers of the East (21. April 1924); in: Leon Trotsky Speaks, Pathfinder 1972

____ The Lessons of October (1924); in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1923-25), Pathfinder Press, New Your 1975

____ Perspectives of World Development (1924),

____ Where is Britain Going? (1925), in: Trotsky’s Writings on Britain, Vol. 2, New Park Publications, London 1974

____ An Analysis of the Slogans and Differences, in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition 1923-25, New York 1975

____ The Platform of the Opposition (1927), in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1926-27)

____ Defeatism’ and Clemenceau (1927); in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1926-27)

____ The Third International After Lenin. The Draft Program of the Communist International: A Criticism of Fundamentals (1928), Pathfinder Press, New York 1970

____ The Permanent Revolution (1929), Pathfinder Press, New York 1969

____ Unifying the Left Opposition (1930); in: Writings 1930

____ An Open Letter to All Members of the Leninbund (1930); in: Writings 1930

____ History of the Russian Revolution (1930), Haymarket Books, Chicago 2008

____ To the Editorial Board of Prometeo (1930); in: Writings 1930

____ Declaration to the Antiwar Congress at Amsterdam (1932), in: Trotsky Writings 1932

____ A Discussion on Greece (Spring 1932), In: Writings of Leon Trotsky: Supplement (1929-33), Pathfinder, New York 1979

____ Philip Pomper (Editor): Trotsky’s Notebooks, 1933-1935: Writings on Lenin, Dialectics and Evolutionism, Columbia University Press, New York 1986

____ War and the Fourth International (1934), in: Trotsky Writings 1933-34

____ Once Again the ILP (1935); in: Trotsky Writings 1935-36

____ Who Defends Russia? Who Helps Hitler? (1935); in: Trotsky Writings 1935-36

____ Open Letter To A British Comrade (1936); in: Trotsky Writings 1935-36

____ Leo Trotsky: Whither France? New Park Publications, London

____ The Revolution Betrayed (1936), Pathfinder Press 1972

____ Resolution on the Antiwar Congress of the London Bureau (1936), in: Documents of the Fourth International, New York 1973

____ Ultralefts in General and Incurable Ultralefts in Particular (A Few Theoretical Considerations), 1937, in: Leon Trotsky: The Spanish Revolution (1931-39), Pathfinder Press, New York 1973,

____ On the Threshold of a New World War (1937); in: Trotsky Writings 1936-37

____ How to Struggle against War (1937), in: Trotsky Writings 1937-38

____ Defeatism vs. Defensism (1937), in: Trotsky Writings 1937-38

____ The Death Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International. The Transitional Program (1938); in: Documents of the Fourth International, New York 1973

____ The Chinese Revolution (Introduction to Harold R. Isaacs, The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution, London 1938), in: Fourth International [New York], Vol.6 No.10 (Whole No.59), October 1945,

____ Learn to Think: A Friendly Suggestion to Certain Ultra-Leftists (1938); in: Trotsky Writings 1937-38

____ Anti-Imperialist Struggle is Key to Liberation. An Interview with Mateo Fossa (1938); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1938-39

____ Fight Imperialism to Fight Fascism (1938); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, Vol. 1938-39

____ Petty-Bourgeois Democrats and Moralizers (1938-39); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, Supplement 1934-40

____ For A Courageous Reorientation (1939), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, 1938-39

____ Lenin on Imperialism (February 1939), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, Vol. 1938-39, Pathfinder Press, New York 1974

____ Progressive Paralysis. The Second International on the Eve of the New War (1939), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, 1939-40

____ A step towards social patriotism (1939), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky, 1938-39

____ The “Tanaka Memorial” (1940), in: Trotsky Writings 1939/40,

____ and G. Zinoviev, Yevdokimov: Resolution of the All-Russia Metal Workers Union (1927); in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1926-279)

Trotskyist Faction: XI Conferencia De La FT: Tensiones económicas e inestabilidad política. Documento sobre situación internacional discutido en la XI Conferencia de la FT, 22.3.2018, 2018,

____ Die Welt im Jahr 2018 (Teil 1): Wirtschaftliche Spannungen und politische Instabilität,

____ Stop Bombing Syria! Nothing good can come of this bombing or any other imperialist military intervention, April 14, 2018

Tyulkin, Viktor: Some words on the Russian imperialism, 09.10.2017,

UK foreign secretary warns of ‘First World War risk’ in Middle East, 20 November 2018

Union Bank of Switzerland / PricewaterhouseCoopers: New visionaries and the Chinese Century. Billionaires insights 2018

____ UBS/PwC Billionaires Report 2018: Total billionaire wealth grows 19 percent to a record USD 8.9 trillion, 26 October 2018,

United Communist Party (Russia): UCP commentary about destruction of statues in Palmira,

____ Заявление Президиума ЦК ОКП: Мы отвергаем территориальные уступки, осуществленные против воли трудящихся, 21 Дек. 2016 (Statement of the Presidium of the CC OKP: We reject territorial concessions made against the will of the working people, 21 December 2016)

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: The World Population Situation in 2014. A Concise Report, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, 2014

____ Population 2030. Demographic challenges and opportunities for sustainable development planning, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, 2015

____ World Population Prospects, The 2017 Revision. Key Findings and Advance Tables, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, 2017

United Nations: International Migration Report 2017, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations, New York 2017

UNCTAD: World Investment Report 1994

____ Trade and Development Report 2016, New York and Geneva, 2016

____ Trade and Development Report 2017, New York and Geneva, 2017

____ Trade and Development Report 2018, New York and Geneva, 2018

____ World Investment Report 2018

UNICEF: Results of the 1999 Iraq Child and Maternal Mortality Surveys, Federation of American Scientists,

UNIDO: Industrial Development Report 2002/2003. Competing through Innovation and Learning

____ Industrial Development Report 2013

____ Industrial Development Report 2018. Demand for Manufacturing: Driving Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Real GDP per Capita in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis;, September 17, 2018

U.S. Department of Defense: Casualty Status as of 10 a.m. EST Nov. 21, 2018,

U.S. to blame if any South China Sea clash: Chinese researcher, January 9, 2019,

Vagenas, Elisseos: The Military-Political Equation in Syria, (Extensive excerpts from the article published in “Kommounistiki Epitheorisi”, the political-theoretical journal of the CC of the KKE, issue 1 of 2016),

Vargas-Silva, Carlos: Global International Migrant Stock: The UK in International Comparison (2011),

Velde, Dirk Willem te: Foreign Direct Investment and Development. A historical perspective, 30 January 2006, Background paper for ‘World Economic and Social Survey for 2006’, Overseas Development Institute

Velychenko, Stephan: The Size of the Imperial Russian Bureaucracy and Army in Comparative Perspective, in: Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, Vol. 49 (2001), No. 3

Villain, Jean: Die großen 72 Tage. Ein Report von Jean Villain über die Pariser Kommunarden, Verlag Volk und Welt, Berlin 1981

Vogel, Steffen: Linke Sammlungsbewegung: Falsches Vorbild Mélenchon, aus: »Blätter« 3/2018,

Vogt, Gabriele: Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Japan: Fokus Migration, Berlin-Instituts für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung, 2008

Wagenknecht, Sahra: “Offene Grenzen für alle – das ist weltfremd”, Interview mit Sahra Wagenknecht, erschienen im FOCUS am 10.02.2018,

Wang, Ban (Ed.): Chinese Visions of World Order. Tianxia, Culture, and World Politics, Duke University Press, Durham and London 2017

Wang, Brian: China development compared to Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, March 31, 2014

Wang, Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian: China and the New International Order, Routledge, New York 2008;

Wang Mingming: All under heaven (tianxia). Cosmological perspectives and political ontologies in pre-modern China, in: HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 2 (1)

Watts, Gordon: Hope springs eternal for a China-US trade deal, November 9, 2018

____ Meng arrest and Huawei claims illustrate China’s high-tech dilemma, December 12, 2018

Weir, Fred: Kremlin frets as Russia’s once restive Islamist region takes up political Islam, September 20, 2017

Westwood, J. N.: Russia against Japan, 1904-1905: A New Look At the Russo-Japanese War, State University of New York, 1986

WFTU on the Situation in S.E. Mediterranean, 12 Apr 2018,

White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy: How China’s Economic Aggression Threatens the Technologies and Intellectual Property of the United States and the World, June 2018

Why Communist China Is Home to So Many Billionaires, November 29, 2018,

Wiener, Johannes: In Response to the Self-Proclaimed “Leadership” of the World Socialist Movement. A Reply to the Recent Polemic of the ICFI/WSWS against the RCIT, 30 April 2016,

____ and Ime Berisha: Freedom and Self-Determination for Kosova! Down with the Government of Isa Mustafa Hashim Thaçi, Lackeys for the Rich and Imperialism! 31.01.2015,

Wijk, Rob de: Power Politics. How China and Russia Reshape the World, Amsterdam University Press B.V., Amsterdam 2015; Robert Ross: Naval superpower race: China ‘to overtake US in 15 years’. November 28, 2018

Wikipedia: Fortune Global 500,

Wilkins, Mira: The History of Foreign Investment in the United States, 1914–1945, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 2004

Williams, Brian Glyn: Inferno in Chechnya, University Press of New England 2015

Who Owns Russia: 32 Largest Business Groups Make 51% of GDP, Emerging Markets Venue, July 12, 2010,

Wolter, Heinz: Die Alternativkonzeption der Sozialdemokratie zum außenpolitischen Kurs Bismarcks nach 1871, in: Ernst Engelberg (Ed.): Diplomatie und Kriegspolitik vor und nach der Reichsgründung, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1971

Woods, Alan: Marxism and the State, International Marxist Tendency, December 2008,

Wolfe, Bertram: War Comes to Russia, in: The Russian Review Vol. 22 (1963), No. 2

Wong, Lawrence: China and nationalism, Letters, Socialist Review, Issue: October 2018

World Bank, Development Research Center of the State Council, the People’s Republic of China: China 2030. Building a Modern, Harmonious, and Creative High-Income Society, Washington 2013

World party leaders congratulate China on CPC congress, 2012/11/08,

World Trade Organization: World Trade Report 2017. Trade, technology and jobs

____ World Trade Statistical Review 2018

Wright, Logan, Daniel Rosen: Credit and Credibility – Risks to China’s Economic Resilience, Center for Strategic and International Studies, October 2018

Wygodski, S.L.: Der gegenwärtige Kapitalismus (1969), Berlin 1972

Xi inspects PLA Southern Theater Command, stresses advancing commanding ability, Xinhua, 2018-10-26

Xie, Jun: China’s social net wealth second highest, while imbalances need attention, Global Times, 2018/12/27

Xinhua: Roundup: Venezuelan analysts say Communist Party of China’s leadership remarkable, 2016-07-11,

Xinhua: CPC newspaper says China should “grasp historic opportunity”, 15.01.2018,

Yamanouchi, Akito “Internationalized Bolshevism” : The Bolsheviks and the International, 1914-1917, in: Acta Slavica Iaponica Vol.7 (1989)

Yanfei, Wang: China should reduce restrictions on foreign capital, senior economists say, China Daily, 2017-09-25,

Yaresh, Leo: The “Peasant Wars” in Soviet Historiography, in: American Slavic and East European Review, Vol. 16, No. 3 (October 1957)

Yu, Au Loong: Strength and Contradictions of the Chinese Economy: An Interview With Au Loong Yu, September 13, 2018,

Zhe, Zhan Dou and Dan Morley: Where is China going: back to the planned economy or strengthening capitalism? 30 November 2017

Zheng Yongnian (Ed.): China and International Relations. The Chinese view and the contribution of Wang Gungwu, Routledge, New York 2010

Zhu, Wenqian: Beijing listed as billionaire capital of world once again, China Daily, 2017-03-08,

Zinoviev, Gregory: Die russische Sozialdemokratie und der russische Sozialchauvinismus (1915); in: W. I. Lenin/G. Sinowjew: Gegen den Strom. Aufsätze aus den Jahren 1914-1916, Hamburg 1921

____ Pazifismus oder Marxismus (Böse Folgen einer Losung.), in: G. Sinowjew / V. I. Lenin: Gegen den Strom, Verlag der Kommunistischen Internationale, Hamburg 1921 (In English: Pacifism or Marxism (The Misadventures of a Slogan), in: Spartacist English edition No. 64, Summer 2014,

____ Der ‚Defaitismus‘ früher und heute (1916); in: Lenin/Sinowjew: G. Sinowjew / V. I. Lenin: Gegen den Strom, Verlag der Kommunistischen Internationale, Hamburg 1921

____ Der Krieg und die Krise im Sozialismus, Verlag für Literatur und Kritik, Wien 1924

Zucman, Gabriel: The Missing Wealth of Nations: Are Europe and the U.S. Net Debtors or Net Creditors? in: The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2013)

Zyuganov, Gennady: The crisis in Ukraine and its deep roots, September 2014, CPRF____ Президент Сирии Башар Асад высоко оценил помощь КПРФ и ее лидера Г.А. Зюганова, 25.10.2015,

____ Сирия: Так было и так будет! 17.04.2018,

Зюганов попросил признать Донбасс территорией России (Zyuganov asked to recognize the Donbass as territory of Russia),, 11.09.2018, (our translation)

Leave a Comment

Scroll to Top