Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital

Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism

Preface for the Portuguese Translation of “The Great Robbery of the South”


Written by Michael Pröbsting

(International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency)

Published in 2013

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List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations



1. Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism

“…as precise and full a Definition of Imperialism as possible”

Trotsky’s View of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism

The Division of the World into Oppressing and Oppressed Nations

The Semi-Colonial Countries: a modified Form of Imperialist Subjugation or Independent Capitalist States?

The Role of the Superstructure and its Relationship with the Economic Basis

Imperialism and the Semi-Colonial State

2. Monopolism and the increasing Role of Monopolies in the World Economy 

Imperialism as Policy or as Monopolism based on Economic Laws?

Monopolism and Monopoly Profit

The ever-increasing Grip of Monopolies in the World Economy

3. The Decline of Capitalism since the 1970s

4. Capitalist Value Production and the Working Class Move to the South

The Marxist Classics on the Industrialization of the South

Value and Price on the World Market: The Grand Distortion of the Value Creation in the South

The increasing Importance of the Proletariat in the South and the Emerging Imperialist Countries

5. Rising Exploitation, Super-Exploitation and the Lowering the Value of Labour Force

Marx and the Depressing the Wages below the Value of the Labor Force

Impoverishment and Précarisation of the World Working Class in the past Decades

The Rise in the Rate of Exploitation

6. Marxist Theory and Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries 

Unequal Exchange

Capital Export

Migration and Super-Exploitation

Centrist Objections

The Role of the Foreign Market

7. Various Forms of Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries and their Development in the past Decades (Part 1)

An Overview on the Financial Net Transfer

Importance of Raw Materials and Food

The Role of Imperialist Capital Export to the Semi-Colonial World

Excurse: Capital Export and Capital Export is not the same

8. Various Forms of Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries and their Development in the past Decades (Part 2)

i) Extra Profits via Capital Export as Productive Investment

Underestimation of surplus value and extra-profits extracted from the South

ii) Extra profits via Capital Export as Money Capital (Loans, Currency Reserves, Speculation, etc.)

Losses from Currency Exchange

Capital Flight

iii) Value Transfer from the Semi-Colonial South to the Imperialist North: Unequal Exchange

iv) Value Transfer from the Semi-Colonial South to the Imperialist North: Migration

Dramatic effects for semi-colonies: Brain Drain and Remittances

Direct and Indirect Exploitation of Migrants

Attempt for Total Calculation of Imperialist Plundering

Excurse: The Role of the Plundering of the Colonies for the Formation of

Capitalism in Western Europe in the 16th to 18th Century

9. Revisionist Critiques of the Leninist Theory of Imperialism

The Essence of Centrism

Denial of Concept of Semi-Colonies

Did Lenin and Trotsky know of Semi-Colonies?

When did the Epoch of Imperialism begin?

“Sometimes the Creation of ‚Independent’ States leads to a Strengthening of Imperialism.” (Lenin)

Backward Countries without Industry and Proletariat?

The CWI and the “imperialist” Argentina

The Example of Argentina

The SWP/IST and the Debt Dependency

Is there still a National Question of the Semi-Colonial Countries?

The new Theory of “Sub-Imperialism”

The Example of Turkey

“Sub-Imperialism” or Advanced Semi-Colonies?

Rejection of Concept of Labor Aristocracy

LFI: A formal Defense of Lenin’s Theory which disembowels its revolutionary Content

10. China‘s Transformation into an Imperialist Power

What are the Criteria for an Imperialist State?

China’s race to a World Major Economy

China’s Monopolies

Exploitation and Super-Exploitation of the Working Class

Capital Export as Bond and Loan Capital

Capital Export as Foreign Direct Investment

A Note on Hong Kong’s Role in Foreign Direct Investment

Where is China investing abroad?

Super-exploitation of the semi-colonies

China’s Military Forces

The Struggle for Control over the South China (or East) Sea

Where should the Working Class stand in possible Wars involving US and Chinese Imperialism and South-East Asian Nations?

Why did China’s Rulers succeed in becoming imperialist where others failed?

11. The Theory of Permanent Revolution and its Program for the Working Class Struggle

12. The Struggle against Imperialist Aggressions and Wars:

The Programme of the early Communist International and the Fourth International

i) Reactionary Wars and Conflicts between Imperialist States

ii) Just Wars and Resistance of the Oppressed

For the Destruction of the Apartheid State Israel!

Excursus: Capitalism as a unity of economic, political and ideological Spheres

iii) The Struggle for Class Independence and the Anti-imperialist United Front Tactic

iv) Liberation Struggles, Imperialist Interference and the Dual Military Tactics

The Public Opinion in the Imperialist World must not be the Starting Point for developing a Position towards a War!

How to approach various Forms of imperialist Military Interventions?

Consequences for the Military Tactic 

The Marxist Classics on Contradictory Factors in Wars

13. Centrism’s Failure in the Struggle against Imperialist Wars

i) The Malvinas War in 1982

ii) The Gulf War in 1991

iii) The imperialist War on Terror since 2001

Social-Imperialist ex-Stalinists

The IST’s specific Form of Opportunism 

How to fight for anti-imperialist Position and how not to fight for it

IST policy: Give us some Posts and we stop fighting for our Principles

CWI and their Capitulation to Imperialism

Socialist Zionism a la CWI

Is Revolutionary Defeatism too much for the Working Class?

On the CWI’ and IMT’s Falsification of Lenin’s and Trotsky’s Method

CMR/IRMT: Rejection of Anti-Imperialism in ultra-left Clothes

14. Some final remarks on the Perspectives for Class Struggle

i) A world historic revolutionary period

ii) The present historic period and its consequences for the semi-colonial world

The Shift to the South

The shift to Asia

Increasing Migration and Internationalization of the working class in the North

Great Power Rivalry and increasing imperialist leverage and wars of aggression against semi-colonies

Tendency towards Colonialism or more room to maneuver for the semi-colonial bourgeoisie? 

Globalization, regionalization and protectionism

The Prospects of Revolution and the Crisis of Working Class Leadership

15. Summary

List of Tables

Table 1: National composition of Top 50 control-holders Shareholders

Table 2: Growth Rate of the worldwide GDP 1971-2010

Table 3: Growth Rate of Industrial Production in USA, Japan and EU-15, 1961-2010

Table 4: Growth Rate of Gross Fixed Capital Formation in USA, Japan and EU-15, 1961-2010

Table 5: Growth Rates of Fixed Capital Stock, 1960-2000

Table 6: Share of Imperialist and (Semi-)Colonial Countries in World Industrial Production 1948-1979

Table 7: Manufacturing Share by Region, 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2010 (in %)

Table 8: Share of Output by Sector in Developed and Developing Countries 1990–2005

Table 9: Share of Economic Sectors of GDP in various World Regions 2008

Table 10: Developing and Developed Countries’ Share of Global Manufacturing Value added by Industry Sector, 1995–2009

Table 11: Wage laborer as a Share of all Employed by Regions, 1996-2008

Table 12: Female Wage Laborer as a Share of all Female Employed by Regions, 2008

Table 13: Share of all Labor Force in Economic Sectors in Regions, 1950, 1977 and 2008 (in %)

Table 14: Share of all Labor Force in different Regions in the years, 1965, 1995 and 2008/09

Table 15: Growth of the Working Class in the Semi-Colonial World

Table 16: Distribution of Wage Laborers in different Regions, 1995 and 2008/09

Table 17: Distribution of Labor Force in Industry in different Regions 2008/09

Table 18: Share of Manufacturing Employment for Developing and Developed Countries, by Industry Sector, 1993–2008

Table 19: Changes of Labor’s Share of GDP in Rich and Poor countries, 1960-1993

Table 20: Wages Growth and GDP Growth, 2001-2007

Table 21: Share of Wages in Manufacturing, 1975-1992

Table 22: Net Transfers of Financial Resources to Developing Countries and former Stalinist Countries, 1995-2011

Table 23: Gross Value of Capital Invested Abroad in 1914 and 1938

Table 24: Distribution of US Private FDI, 1950-1975

Table 25: Distribution of Western German Private FDI, 1960-1975

Table 26: Geographical Distribution of Foreign Direct Investments of Western Europe, USA and Japan, 1975

Table 27: Gross Value of Foreign Capital in Developing Countries 1870-1998

Table 28: Geographical Distribution of Inward FDI Stock, 1967-1997

Table 29: FDI Stock, by Region and Economy, 1990-2011

Table 30: FDI Stock, by Region and Economy, 1980-2011 (share of global FDI stock)

Table 31: FDI Inflows as a Percentage of Capital Formation, 1980-1990

Table 32: FDI Inflows as a Percentage of Capital Formation, 1990-2010

Table 33: FDI Outflows as a percentage of Capital Formation, 1990-2010

Table 34: Company Acquisitions and Creation by Foreign Capital in the US, 1983-1989

Table 35: Profit rates of Direct Investment of US corporations in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries, 1951-1970

Table 36: Extra profits of US Monopolies in Semi-Colonies, 1970 and 1975

Table 37: Profits on US Direct Investment Overseas, 2006-2009

Table 38: Annually Repatriated Profits and Annual Growth of Foreign Investment by US Monopolies, 1950-1966

Table 39: International Banking Capital in relation to World Output, Trade and Investment, 1964-1991

Table 40: Long-Term Real Interest Rates in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries

Table 41: Increase of Debts in Regions, 1980-2002

Table 42: Gross Debt, Deposits and Net Debt, 1995

Table 43: Stock of foreign-born Labor Force in OECD countries, 1999-2008

Table 44: Distribution of National Income between the North and the South, 1850 and 1960

Table 45: Per Capita GDP in North and South, 1820 and 1998

Table 46: Industrialization in Latin American countries, 1929-1957

Table 47: Per Capita GDP and Interregional Spreads, 1870-1998

Table 48: Turkey’s FDI Stock, 1990-2011

Table 49: Wage Inequality in OECD Countries, 1970-2008

Table 50: Share of low-skilled Workers, 1995

Table 51: Unskilled and Skilled Workers, 2001

Table 52: List of the Top 10 Countries of the Global 500 companies

Table 53: Rural-to-Urban Migrants as a Proportion of Total Workforce

Table 54: Annual Increase in Labor Disputes in China, 1995-2006

Table 55: FDI Outward Stock by Country, 2011

Table 56: FDI flows from selected countries, 2006-2011

Table 57: Destinations of China’s Capital Export from 2005 to mid-2012

Table 58: China’s Non-Bond Investment by Type 2005-2010

Table 59: The 10 largest Military Spender, 2011

Table 60: The 10 largest Exporter of Major Arms, 2010

List of Figures

Figure 1: Global FDI flows to GDP

Figure 2: Transnational Corporations share of world GDP, 2010

Figure 3: Internationalization Statistics of the 100 largest non-financial TNCs worldwide & from Developing and Transition Economies, 2010

Figure 4: U.S. Parent Companies Account for Employment, Output, Capital, Investment, Exports and Research and Development, 2006

Figure 5: Rate of Profit in the US Productive Sectors, 1948-2010

Figure 6: Rate of Profit of US Corporations, 1947-2009

Figure 7: Average Rate of Profit and Organic Composition in the US Productive Sectors, 1948-2009

Figure 8: Manufacturing Capacity Utilization in USA

Figure 9: Financial Profits as a Percentage of Total Profits in USA

Figure 10: Share of Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate in USA

Figure 11: U.S. Balance Of Payments, 1946–2008

Figure 12: Developing Economies’ Share in World Manufacturing Value Added and GDP, 1990–2010

Figure 13: Developed and Developing Countries’ Share of World Manufactured Exports, 1992–2009

Figure 14: Manufactured Exports Markets by Region, 2005 and 2009

Figure 15: Distribution of the Global Labor Force by Regions, 1965–2025

Figure 16: Developing Countries’ Share in World Manufacturing Employment, 1980–2008

Figure 17: Global Industrial Labor Force in Developed and Developing Countries, 1950–2005

Figure 18: Share of Manufacturing Employment in Developing Countries, 1998–2008

Figure 19: Employment Status in Turkey, 1988-2006 in Total Employment, 1970-2007

Figure 21: Informal Employment and Economic Development

Figure 22: Labor Share in OECD Countries, 1960-2000

Figure 23: Labor Income Shares in OECD Countries, 1980-2007

Figure 24: Share of Compensation of Employees in National Income, Selected Country Groups, 1980-2008

Figure 25: Wage Share of Value Added in Manufacturing Industry in South Korea, Mexico and Turkey, 1970-2003

Figure 26: Wage Share in Manufacturing Industry in Turkey, 1970-2005

Figure 27: Chinese Manufacturing Labour’s Share, 2002-2008

Figure 28: Trends in Wage Shares in Regions, 1983-2009

Figure 29: Rates of Surplus Value in Developed, Developing and Transition Economies, 1994-2008

Figure 30: Latin America: Net Transfer of Resources, 1950-2002

Figure 31: Net Financial Transfer from Semi-Colonies to Metropolises, 1980-1990

Figure 32: Costs of the Global Market to Developing Countries, 1990

Figure 33: Net Transfers of Financial Resources to Developing Economies and Economies in Transition, 1999-2011

Figure 34: EU Agricultural Imports by Origin, 1999-2010

Figure 35: FDI Inflows, World and Group of Economies, 1980-2010

Figure 36: Greenfield Investments by the largest 100 TNCs, 2007–2010

Figure 37: Geographical Differences between Hourly Wages in Manufacturing, 2008

Figure 38: Hourly Compensation Costs of Manufacturing Employees, selected Countries and Regions, 2005

Figure 39: Operating Profits derived from Operations in Developing and Transition Economies, selected top 100 TNCs, 2010

Figure 40: Share of Imported Inputs in Manufacturing, 1970-2000

Figure 41: Production Costs of an Apple iPhone assembled in China

Figure 42: US and oversee Employees in 1955 and in 2012

Figure 43: External Debt Service-to-Export Ratio, 2005-2010

Figure 44: Illicit Financial Flows from India, 1948-2008

Figure 45: World Imports as Share of World GDP, 1965-2007

Figure 46: World Exports as Share of World GDP, 1965-2007

Figure 47: Regions Share in World Exports, 1948-2007

Figure 48: World Manufactured Exports, by Region, 1995–2009

Figure 49: Development of Terms of Trade 1880-2000

Figure 50: Development of Terms of Trade for Non-Oil Producing Developing Countries, 1957-2000

Figure 51: Migrants as a percentage of the Population, 1960-2005

Figure 52: The share of Migrants in the population, 1960 and 2005

Figure 53: Wages in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries, 1988-92

Figure 54: Turkey’s Rising Dependence on Short-Term Foreign Debt

Figure 55: Real Annual Family Income Growth by Quintile, 1947-1979 and 1979-2010

Figure 56: Changes in US Male Full-Time Workers Wages according to their different Education Levels, 1963-2008

Figure 57: Increase of Wage Inequality in OECD countries, 1980-2005

Figure 58: US Male Wage Inequality, 1937-2005

Figure 59: Share of Global Economic Output, 1981-2011

Figure 60: China’s Economic Performance

Figure 61: Share of global Manufacturing Exports; USA and Britain 1906-29 and China 2000-09 (in %)

Figure 62: Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Imperialist Countries, Semi-Colonial Countries and China, 1960-2011

Figure 63: International Comparison of Ownership Structure of the Banking Sector (2005) and Financial System Structure (2009)

Figure 64: Rate of Profit in the Chinese Manufacturing, 1978-2004

Figure 65: Size of State-Owned Enterprises and Rate of Return in Private and State Enterprises in China, 1998-2010

Figure 66: Share of Informal Employment in Urban Labor Market amongst Migrant and Local Workers in China, 2001-2010

Figure 67: Government Expenditures for Education, Health, Environmental and Social Protection, 2007-2009

Figure 68: Inequality in Real Wages in Special Economic Zones and All Other Cities between top and bottom layer of Workers, 1988-2001

Figure 69: Inequality in Nominal Wages in Special Economic Zones and All Other Cities, 1988-2001

Figure 70: Workers Protests in State and Private Enterprises, 2000-2010

Figure 71: China’s Foreign Exchange Reserves and its US Securities Holdings, 2002-2011

Figure 72: China as the world second biggest Net Capital Exporter, 2011

Figure 73: China’s Outward Investment, 2005 – mid 2012

Figure 74: Composition of China’s Foreign Investments, 2009‐2011

Figure 75: Foreign Assets of China’s main non‐banking SOEs, 2010

Figure 76: China’s Trade with Africa, 1995-2010

Figure 77: China’s Trade with East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990 and 2010

Figure 78: China’s First and Second Island Chains in the Pacific Sea

Figure 79: Sovereignty Claims in the South China Sea

List of Abbreviations

Comintern: Communist International

CMR: Committee for Marxist Revival

CWI: Committee for a Workers International

ECLAC/CEPAL: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ELP: European Left Party

EU: European Union

FDI: Foreign Direct Investment

FLTI: Fracción Leninista Trotskista Internacional

GDP: Gross Domestic Product

ILO: International Labour Organization

IMF: International Monetary Fund

IMT: International Marxist Tendency

IST: International Socialist Tendency

IRMT: Iranian Revolutionary Marxists’ Tendency

LCFI: Liaison Committee for the Fourth International

LFI: League for the Fifth International

LINKE: Left Party in Germany

LRCI: League for a Revolutionary Communist International

LCW: Collected Works of Lenin

LW: Lenin Werke (Collected Works of V. I. Lenin in German language)

MECW: Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels

MEW: Marx Engels Werke (Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in German language)

NPA: Nouveau Parti Anticapitaliste

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

p.a.: per annum (per year)

PCF: Parti Communiste Français

PPP: Purchasing Power Parity

RCIT: Revolutionary Communist International Tendency

RKOB: Revolutionäre Kommunistische Organisation zur Befreiung

Schriften: Trotzki Schriften (Trotsky Writings in German language)

SWP: Socialist Workers Party

TNC: Transnational Corporation

UN: United Nations

UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDP: United Nations Development Programme

UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UN-DESA: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

US: United States of America

WTO: World Trade Organization


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Elmeskov, Jørgen: The General Economic Background to the Crisis, OECD Paper for Session on “How the global economy headed into crisis” at the G20 Workshop on the Causes of the Crisis: Key Lessons Mumbai, 24-26 May, 2009

Engelin, Bruno: Linkspartei – Einstimmig mit Abweichlern. Bundestagsfraktion streitet über Antisemitismusbeschluss, 16.06.2011,

Engels, Frederick: Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigentums und des Staats (1884); in: Marx Engels Werke 21, In English: The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, Chippendale 2004

____ Reden über Polen (1847); in: Marx Engels Werke 4; in English: Speech on Poland (1847), Speeches at the International Meeting held in London on November 29,1847 to mark the 17th Anniversary of the Polish Uprising of 1830,

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Strategy for Turkey (2012)

European Left Party: Appell der Europäischen Linken an die Staatschefs in Europa, 1.8.2006;

____ Ceasefire now! Stop the war!, Berlin, 10.1.2009,

____ Executive Board meeting: The ELP condemns the violent escalation by the Israel government in Gaza strip and urges the EU to recognize the state of Palestine, Copenhagen, 17/18.11.2012,

European Commission: Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs of the European Commission: Labour market and wage developments in 2009; in: EUROPEAN ECONOMY Nr. 5/2010

____ Tackling the Challenges in Commodity Markets and on Raw Materials, 2.2.2011

____ Global and EU agricultural exports rebound, Monitoring Agri-trade Policy, No. 01-11, May 2011

____ European Economic Forecast Spring 2012, Statistical Annex of European Economy, EUROPEAN ECONOMY Nr. 1/2012

European Union: Raw materials, 13.3.2012,

Faulwetter, Helmut: Die Ausbeutung der Entwicklungsländer durch das international Monopolkapital; in: Autorenkollektiv (unter Leitung von Peter Stier): Handbuch Entwicklungsländer. Sozialökonomische Prozesse, Fakten und Strategien, Berlin 1987

Ferraro, Vincent and Rosser, Melissa: Global Debt and Third World Development; in: From: World Security: Challenges for a New Century, edited by Michael Klare and Daniel Thomas (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994),

Fischer, Andrew M.: Putting Aid in its Place: Insights from early Structuralists on Aid and Balance of Payments and Lessons for Contemporary Aid Debates; Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, The Netherlands; in: Journal of International Development, No. 21 (2009)

Fitoussi, Jean-Paul and Saraceno, Francesco: Inequality and Macroeconomic Performance, (2010), OFCE/Sciences Po,

Forbes: The 147 Companies That Control Everything, 22.10.2011

____ The World’s Biggest Companies, The Forbes Magazine, 18.4.2012,

____ A Regional Look At The Forbes Global 2000; Forbes Magazine, 20.4.2011,

Fortune Magazine: Fortune Global 500 list in 2012,

Foster, John Bellamy and McChesney, Robert W.: The Endless Crisis (2012), in: Monthly Review, May 2012,

____ The Global Stagnation and China, in: Monthly Review, Volume 63, Issue 09 (February 2012),

____ and Jonna, R. Jamil: The Global Reserve Army of Labor and the New Imperialism, in: Monthly Review Vol. 63, Issue 6 (November 2011)

Fourth International: Resolution on the Antiwar Congress of the London Bureau (1936), in: Documents of the Fourth International, New York 1973

____ Imperialist War and the Proletarian World Revolution; Manifesto adopted by the Emergency Conference of the Fourth International in May 1940; in: in: Documents of the Fourth International. The Formative Years (1933-40), New York 1973

____ Manifesto of the Fourth International: For Defense of the Soviet Union!, August 1941, Fourth International, New York, Volume II No. 8, October 1941,

Fracción Leninista Trotskista Internacional: FLTI Majority Document on China as semi-colony of imperialism, 20.2.2010,

____ Remarks from FLTI on the RCIT’s Resolution on Mali (January 2013), respectively

Frank, André Gunder: Kapitalistische Unterentwicklung oder sozialistische Revolution (1968); in: Bolivar Echeverria, Horst Kurnitzky (Hrsg.): Lateinamerika. Entwicklung einer Unterentwicklung, Berlin 1980

Freres, Christian and Mold, Andrew: European Union Trade Policy and the Poor. Towards Improving the Poverty Impact of the GSP in Latin America, 2004

Fritz, Thomas: Globalising Hunger: Food Security and the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (2011)

Froud, Julie, Johal, Sukhdev, Leaver, Adam and Williams, Karel: Apple Business Model. Financialization across the Pacific; CRESC Working Paper Series, Working Paper No.111, April 2012

Fuchs, Christian: A Contribution to Critical Globalization Studies (2009); Centre for the Critical Study of Global Power and Politics Working Paper CSGP 09/8,

Furtado, Celso: Economic Development of Latin America. Historical Background and contemporary problems, New York 1984

Garamone, Jim: Panetta Describes U.S. Shift in Asia-Pacific; American Forces Press Service, Singapore, 1.6.2012,

Gill, Stephen: Gramsci, Modernity and Globalization; International Gramsci Society Online Article, January 2003,

Global Times: China must react to Vietnam’s provocation, 21.6.2011,

Glyn, Andrew: Capitalism Unleashed. Finance, Globaliszation, and Welfare, New York 2006

Gohlke, Nicole: Palästina-Solidarität heute; in: Der Israel/Palästina-Konflikt als Thema der politischen Bildung – Beiträge einer Arbeitstagung des Kurt-Eisner-Vereins – rls in Bayern, Studienreihe Zivilgesellschaftliche Bewegungen – Institutionalisierte Politik Nr.10/2009

____ Persönliches Statement von Nicole Gohlke zur Nominierung ins LINKE Spitzenteam zur Bundestagswahl, 23.1.2013,

Goldman Sachs: BRICs and Beyond (2007),

Gmundner, Hans: Straches Handlangerdienste, KPÖ, 10.11.07,[tt_news]=105&tx_ttnews[backPid]=2&cHash=7fe484e968

Graaf, Mia de: Limiting Foreign Land Ownership: A Law in the Making, 28.9.2011.

Greenfield, Gerard and Leong, Apo: China’s Communist Capitalism: The Real World of Market Socialism; in: The Socialist Register 1997

Grigat, Stephan: To know the worst: Anti-Semitism and the failure of the Left on Iran, Platypus Review 49, September 2012,

Grossmann, Henryk: Das Akkumulations- und Zusammenbruchsgesetz des kapitalistischen Systems (Zugleich eine Krisentheorie), Leipzig, 1929; in English: Law of the Accumulation and Breakdown,

Gunić, Nina: Islamismus – Was sind seine Ziele und was ist unsere Haltung?, in: BEFREIUNG Nr. 173 (February 2009)

____ Bosnia: Never forget Sebrenica – learn the lessons for today! (2012),

____ and Pröbsting, Michael: The strategic task: From the uprising to the revolution! These are not “riots” – this is an uprising of the poor in the cities of Britain!, in: RCIT: Revolutionary Communism No. 1, (September 2011),

Gysi, Gregor: Krieg ist eine Höchstform von Terror, 19.9.2006,

____ Die Haltung der deutschen Linken zum Staat Israel, Vortrag von Dr. Gregor Gysi auf einer Veranstaltung “60 Jahre Israel” der Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung am 14.4.2008,

Hallas, Duncan: Socialism and war (1982), Socialist Review 82:05, May 1982;

Harman, Chris: Analysing Imperialism (Summer 2003); in: SWP (Britain), International Socialism 2:99,

____ Middle East: Beware the Cornered Tiger, Socialist Review (November 2006),

Harris, Nigel: Imperialism Today, in: Nigel Harris, John Palmer (Editors): World Crisis. Essays in Revolutionary Socialism, SWP (Britain), London 1971

Harrison, Ann: Has Globalization Eroded Labor’s Share? Some Cross-Country Evidence (2005), University of California Berkeley, MPRA Paper No. 39649;

Harvey, Keith: Myth or reality: debating long waves: Review of ‘Richard Brenner and Michael Pröbsting: The Credit Crunch – a Marxist analysis’ (2008), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,

Hassel, Keith: Revolutionary Theory and Imperialism, in: Permanent Revolution (Journal of Workers Power Britain), No. 8 (1989)

Hastings, Max: Will World War III be between the U.S. and China? The Daily Mail, 26.11.2011,

Hays/Oxford Economics: Creating Jobs in a Global Economy 2011-2030: The Hays/Oxford Economics global report (2011)

Hazvina, Fanuel: EU Raw material initiative and their implications on EU’s Relations with Africa, Trade and Development Studies Centre (TRADES Centre), June 2011

Hedeler, Wladislaw and Vatlin, Alexander: Die Weltpartei aus Moskau. Der Gründungskongress der Kommunistischen Internationale 1919. Protokoll und neue Dokumente, Berlin 2008

Henwood, Doug: Clinton’s Trade Policy; in: Fred Rosen and Deidre McFadyen: Free Trade and Economic Restructuring in Latin America, New York 1995

Hill, Hal and Jongwanich, Juthathip: Outward Foreign Direct Investment and the Financial Crisis in Developing East Asia; in: Asian Development Review, vol. 26, no. 2, Asian Development Bank 2009

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Hoeven, Robert van der: Labour market institutions and income inequality: What are the new insights after the Washington Consensus? (2000) United Nations University – World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

Hoeven, Rolph van der: Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries (2010), UN-DESA Working Paper No. 99

House of Lords (Britain): Report – Economic Impact of Migration in UK (2008)

Howley, Kerry: Ending Global Apartheid. Economist Lant Pritchett defends immigration, the least-popular–and most-proven–idea for helping the world’s poor. Reason, February 2008,

Huang, Yiping: The changing face of Chinese investment; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012

Hurun: China’s Rich are getting poorer in new Hurun Rich List, Hurun Report, 24.9.2012,

Index Mundi: Argentina – total debt service. Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services and income);

____ Turkey – total debt service. Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services and income);

Initiative für den Aufbau einer Revolutionär-Kommunistischen Partei: China – ein imperialistisches Land auf dem Weg zu einer globalen Hegemonialmacht, Wien 2011

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International Crisis Group: Stirring up the South China Sea (I); Crisis Group Asia Report N°223, 23.4.2012

____ Stirring up the South China Sea (II): Regional Responses; Crisis Group Asia Report N°229, 24.7.2012

International Labour Office: Global Wage Report 2008/09. Minimum wages and collective bargaining: Towards policy coherence, Geneva 2008

____ World Social Security Report 2010/11. Providing coverage in times of crisis and beyond, Geneva 2010

____ Global Employment Trends 2011: The challenge of a jobs recovery, Geneva 2011

____ Global Employment Trends 2012. Preventing a deeper jobs crisis, Geneva 2012

____ World of Work Report 2011. Making markets work for jobs, Geneva 2011

International Monetary Fund: Global Financial Stability Report. The Quest for Lasting Stability, April 2012, Statistical Appendix, Washington DC 2012

International Organization for Migration: World Migration. Costs and benefits of international migration (2005), IOM World Migration Report Series Volume 3, Geneva 2005

____ About Migration. Facts & Figures (2010),

International Rivers: Chinese Financiers,

Izyumov, Alexei and Vahaly, John: Labor vs. Capital Incomes in Transition Economies. What Would Karl Marx Say? 2011,

Jalée, Pierre: Die Ausbeutung der Dritten Welt (1965), Frankfurt a.M. 1968

____ Das neueste Stadium des Imperialismus (1969), München 1971

Jauch, Herbert: Globalisation and Labour, Labour Resource and Research Institute (LaRRI), Prepared for the Regional Labour Symposium, Windhoek, 6.12.2005

Jefferies, Bill: Capitalism’s long upturn (2006), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,

____ Perspectives and Period – a reply to Dave S (June 2006), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,

____ The SWP ’s economics: A distorted picture of British and global capitalism (2007), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,

Joachim, Laurent: Die Unkosten des Krieges. Billionen vom Staat für Blei, Stahl, Sprengstoff und Elektronik, 10.06.2012,

Johnson, Robert: China Announces How It Would Go To War Against The US Fleet, Business Insider, 11.6.2012,

Kaplan, Robert D.: How We Would Fight China; in: Atlantic Magazine, June 2005,

____ China’s Port in Pakistan? China’s dream of Indian Ocean ports – the so-called string of pearls – is heightening geopolitical tensions in a rough neighborhood; Foreign Policy, 27.5.2011,

____ The South China Sea Is the Future of Conflict. The 21st century’s defining battleground is going to be on water; in: Foreign Policy September/October 2011,

Kar, Dev: The Drivers and Dynamics of Illicit Financial Flows from India: 1948-2008, Global Financial Integrity, November 2010

____ Illicit Financial Flows from the Least Developed Countries: 1990-2008, United Nations Developments Programme 2011

____ and Sarah Freitas: Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries Over the Decade Ending 2009

____ and Devon Cartwright-Smith: Illicit Financial Flows from Africa: Hidden Resource for Development, Global Financial Integrity 2009

Keeley, Brian: International Migration. The human face of globalisation (2009), OECD,

Kerr, Sari Pekkala and Kerr, William R.: Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey (2011); Harvard Business School, Working Paper 09-013

Klare, Michael: US returns in strength to the Pacific. America’s maritime power, Le Monde diplomatique, March 2012,

Klein, Wolfram: Hintergründe der kolonialen Revolution (1991); CWI, in: Die koloniale Revolution, Herausgegeben von Stuttgarter VORAN-Unterstützern, 1991

Klement, Rudolf: Principles and Tactics in War (1938); in The New International (Theoretical journal of the Socialist Workers Party, US-American section of the Fourth International), May 1938, Vol. 4, No. 5. The RCIT re-published this text in: Revolutionary Communism No. 4 (2012)

Kliman, Andrew: A Crisis of Capitalism (not neoliberalism, “financialized capitalism,” or low wages), 2010,

____ The Failure of Capitalist Production. Underlying Causes of the Great Recession, London 2011

Kristensen, Hans M. and Norris, Robert S.: British nuclear forces, 2011, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 2011,

Lantier, Alex: The CIA proxy war in Syria and the pro-imperialist “left”, WSWS 3.8.2012,

Lanz, Rainer and Miroudot, Sebastian: Intra-Firm Trade: Patterns, Determinants and Policy Implications”, (2011), OECD Trade Policy Working Papers, No. 114, OECD Publishing,

Lazzeri, Thomas: EPAs and the European Raw Materials Initiative, in: AEFJN: Forum for Action No.55 (March 2011)

League for a Revolutionary Communist International: The situation in Yugoslavia and the position of proletarian revolutionaries, 30.09.1991,

____ Bosnia – which side are you on?, 05.03.1993,

____ War and Peace in Bosnia. No imperialist solutions!, 30.05.1993,

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____ and PTS: Der albanische Aufstand (1997),

Lee, Peter: Maybe that war with China isn’t so far off, Asia Times Online 22.12.2011,

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Lenin, Vladimir Illich: The Economic Content of Narodism and the Criticism of it in Mr. Struve’s Book (The Reflection of Marxism in Bourgeois Literature) (1894); in: Collected Works, Volume 1

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____ The War and Russian Social-Democracy (1914); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

____ Conspectus of Hegel’s ‘Science of Logic’ (1914); in: Collected Works Vol. 38

____ The Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. Groups Abroad (1915); in Collected Works, Volume 21

____ The revolutionary Proletariat and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

____ The Defeat of one’s own Government in the Imperialist War (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

____ What has been revealed by the Trial of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Duma Group (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

____ Preface to N. Bukharin’s Pamphlet Imperialism and world economy (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

____ On the Question of Dialectics (1915), in: Collected Works, Volume 38

____ The Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

____ The Junius Pamphlet (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

____ Imperialism. The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

____ The Discussion on Self-Determination Summed Up (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

____ A Caricature of Marxism and Imperialist Economism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23

____ Imperialism and the split in socialism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23

____ The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23

____ The State and Revolution. The Marxist Theory of the State and the Tasks of the Proletariat in the Revolution (1917); in: Collected Works, Volume 25

____ Revision of the Party Programme (1917); in: Collected Works, Volume 26

____ Letter to the Workers of Europe and America (1919); in: Collected Works, Volume 28

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____ Draft Theses on National and Colonial Questions for the Second Congress of the Communist International); in: Collected Works, Volume 31

____ Report of the Commission on the National and the Colonial Questions (at the Second Congress of the Communist International 1920); in: Collected Works, Volume 31

____ Letter to the German and the French Workers. Regarding the Discussion on the Second Congress of the Communist International (1920), in: Collected Works, Volume 31

____ Reden auf der Beratung der Mitglieder der deutschen, polnischen, tschechoslowakischen, ungarischen und italienischen Delegation, in: LW Ergänzungsband 1917-23

____ Notes on the Tasks of our Delegation at The Hague (1922); in: Collected Works, Volume 33

____ Imperialism and the Attitude towards it; in: Collected Works, Volume 39

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____ Lenin Briefe. (Lenin Letters in 10 Volumes in German-Language), Berlin 1967 – 1976

____ Lenin: Sämtliche Werke, Band XVIII, Wien-Berlin 1929

____ and Zinoviev, Grigory: Socialism and War (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

Leon, Walter: Stop Israel’s massacre in Gaza! IMT, 31.12.2008,

Liaison Committee for the Fourth International: Those who ‘howled along with the wolves’ and those who took a neutral position on the war in Libya, 14 September 2011, in: Socialist Fight No. 7 (2011)

____ What a strange but delightfully dialectical face ‘liberation’ has in Libya today! Reply to Michael Pröbsting (RCIT), in: Socialist Fight No. 11 (2012)

Liebert, Nicola: Schuldenkrise: Die Position der Gläubiger und das Potential für einen Schuldenerlaß; in: Probleme des Klassenkampfes (PROKLA) Nr. 71 (1988)

Lin, Li-Wen and Milhaupt, Curtis J., We are the (National) Champions: Understanding the Mechanisms of State Capitalism in China (November 1, 2011). Columbia Law and Economics Working Paper No. 409. Available at SSRN: or

Lin, Lilian: Unease Among the Moneyed Ranks, 1.8.2012,

LINKE: LINKE weist Antisemitismus-Vorwürfe zurück. Erklärung des Parteivorstandes der LINKEN, 21.5.2011:

____ Parliamentary Group of the LINKE: Entschieden gegen Antisemitismus, 8.6.2011,

Lipsey, Robert E. and Sjöholm, Fredrik: South–South FDI and Development in East Asia; in: Asian Development Review, vol. 28, no. 2, Asian Development Bank 2011

Lübker, Malte: Labour Shares (2007), ILO Policy Brief,—dgreports/—integration/documents/publication/wcms_086237.pdf

Ludeña, Miguel Perez: Adapting to the Latin American experience; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012

Lugt, Sanne van der, Hamblin, Victoria, Burgess, Meryl and Schickerling, Elizabeth: Assessing China’s Role in Foreign Direct Investment in Southern Africa, Oxfam Hong Kong and Centre for Chinese Studies 2011

Lukacs, Georg: Lenin: A Study on the Unity of his Thought (1924),

Lunding, Andreas: Chinesische Firmen auf dem Vormarsch. Investitionen chinesischer Firmen im Ausland, Deutsche Bank Research, 7.11.2006

Luppol, Iwan K.: Lenin und die Philosophie. Zur Frage des Verhältnisses der Philosophie zur Revolution (1928)

____ Die materialistische Dialektik und die Arbeiterbewegung (1928); in: Unter dem Banner des Marxismus, II. Jahrgang (1928), Wien 1929

Luxemburg, Rosa: Was will der Spartakusbund? (1918), in: Gesammelte Werke, Band 4; in English: What Does the Spartacus League Want? (1918),

Machin, Stephen and Reenen, John Van: Inequality: Still Higher, But Labour’s Policies Kept it Down (2010),

Maddison, Angus: The World Economy, Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective, Volume 2: Historical Statistics, Development Centre Studies, Paris 2006

Main, Peter: China: ‘socialism’ with capitalist characteristics; in: LRCI: Trotskyist International No. 11, 1993

____ China: Stalinists draw near their capitalist goal; in: LRCI: Trotskyist International No. 22, 1997

____ Restoring capitalism in China (2000), LFI,

____ China and International Perspectives (2006), LFI,

____ China: From Mao to the market; in: LFI: Fifth International, Vol. 2, No.4, 2007

Mandel, Ernest: Marxistische Wirtschaftstheorie (1962), Frankfurt a.M. 1968

____ Die Marxsche Theorie der ursprünglichen Akkumulation und die Industrialisierung der Dritten Welt; in: Folgen einer Theorie. Essays über ‚Das Kapital‘ von Karl Marx, Frankfurt a.M. 1967

____ Imperialism and National Bourgeoisie in Latin America (1971); in: International Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 1976), Theoretical Journal of the International Marxist Group (British Section of the Fourth International)

____ Der Spätkapitalismus, Frankfurt a.M. 1972

____ Late Capitalism. London 1975

____ Verschuldungskrise: Eine tickende Zeitbombe; in: Bortz/Castro/Mandel/Wolf: Schuldenkrise, Frankfurt a.M. 1987

Maoist Internationalist Movement (MIM): Coming to grips with the Labor Aristocracy, in: MIM THEORY No. 10 (1996)

____ Imperialism and Its Class Structure in 1997 (1997)

Marsh, Peter: China noses ahead as top goods producer, Financial Times, March 13, 2011,

Martin, Philip L.: Bordering on Control: Combating Irregular Migration in North America and Europe (2003), IOM Migration Research Series No. 13,

____ Migration and development: Toward sustainable solutions (2004)

Marx, Karl: Thesen über Feuerbach (1845); in: Marx Engels Werke 3; in English: Karl Marx: Theses on Feuerbach

____ Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, in: Marx Engels Werke 42; in English: Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (English)

____ Vorwort zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (1859); in: Marx Engels Werke 13; in English: Karl Marx: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Preface (1859)

____ Ökonomisches Manuskript 1861-1863. Teil 1, in: Marx Engels Werke 43; in English: Karl Marx: Economic Manuscript of 1861-63

____ Economic Manuscripts of 1861-63. Capital and Profit; in: MECW Volume 33;

____ Lohn, Preis und Profit (1865); in: Marx Engels Werke 16; in English: Karl Marx: Value, Price and Profit

____ Das Kapital Band I, in: Marx Engels Werke 23; in English: Capital, Volume I

____ Das Kapital Band II, in: Marx Engels Werke 24; in English: Capital, Volume II

____ Das Kapital, Band III; in Marx Engels Werke 25; In English: Karl Marx: Capital, Volume III

____ Brief an Sigrid Meyer und August Vogt (94.1870); in: Marx Engels Werke 32; in English. Karl Marx: Letter to Sigfrid Meyer and August Vogt (9.4.1870)

____ Theorien über den Mehrwert, III. Teil, Marx Engels Werke 26.3; in English: Karl Marx: Theories of Surplus-Value, Vol. III

Matgamna, Sean: What if Israel bombs Iran? in: Solidarity & Workers’ Liberty, Vol. 3, No. 136, 24.7.2008,

McKinsey Global Institute: The World at Work: Jobs, Pay, and Skills for 3.5 Billion People (2012)

____ Debt and deleveraging: Uneven progress on the path to growth (2012)

Mihalakas, Nasos: Chinese ‘Trojan Horse’ – Investing in Greece, or Invading Europe? (Part I), 15.1.2011,

Miller, Morris: Where Is Global Interdependence Taking Us? Why We Need A “New (Improved) Bretton Woods”; From “Social Tensions & Armed Conflict: Ethnic & Other Aspects”, Panel: Global interdependence in economic & financial matters”, Pugwash, Nova Scotia, July 28-31, 1994

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Morris, Paul: The Left and the War: The acid test; in: Workers Power No. 139 (February 1991)

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Movement for a Revolutionary Communist International: The anti-imperialist united front (1986); in: Permanent Revolution No. 5

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____ MRCI Statement on China; in: Trotskyist International No. 3, Summer 1989

Mozur, Paul: Review of William Hurst’s ‘The Chinese Worker After Socialism’, in: THE FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW, May 2009,

Münz, Rainer and Fassmann, Heinz: Migrants in Europe and their Economic Position: Evidence from the European Labour Force Survey and from Other Sources (2004)

Murse, Tom: How Much U.S. Debt Does China Really Own?

Nakatani, Paulo and Herera, Rémy: The South Has Already Repaid it External Debt to the North. But the North Denies its Debt to the South, Monthly Review, Volume 59, Issue 02 (June 2007),

National Intelligence Council: Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds (2012),

Norfield, Tony: What the ‘China Price’ really means, 3.6.2011,

Nouveau Parti Anticapitaliste: Statement: NO! to the French military intervention in Mali, 141.2013,

Ocampo, José Antonio and Palma, José Gabriel: The Role of Preventative Capital Account Regulations; in: José Antonio Ocampo and Joseph E. Stiglitz (eds.): Capital Market Liberalization and Development, New York 2008;

O’Connell, Arturo: The Return of “Vulnerability” and Raúl Prebisch’s Early Thinking on the “Argentine Business Cycle”; in: CEPAL REVIEW 75 (December 2001)

Office of the Secretary of Defense (USA): Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2012, May 2012

Olende, Ken: French attack on Mali is an imperialist venture, SWP (Britain), in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2336, 19.1.2013,

____ Rulers’ racism masks imperialist war in Mali, SWP (Britain) in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2336, 19.1.2013,

____ Cameron joins France’s imperialist war in Mali, SWP (Britain), in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2338, 2 February 2013,

Onaran, Özlem: Capital Flows, Turbulences, and Distribution: The Case of Turkey (2007), Istanbul Technical University

____ Labor’s Share in Developing Countries in the Era of Globalization (2008), Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien & Istanbul Technical University

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Globalisation, Jobs and Wages (2007), OECD Observer policy Brief

____ Employment Outlook (2007),

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____ International Migration Outlook 2010, SOPEMI 2010

Orlik, Tom and Davis, Bob: Beijing Diversifies Away From U.S. Dollar, Wall Street Journal, 2.3.2012,

Parti Communiste Français: C’est le Mali qu’il faut reconstruire, (11.1.2013),

____ L’ intervention militaire française comporte de grands risques de guerre (12.1.2013),

Pei, Haide: What Two Case Studies Tell Us about the Situation of State Owned Enterprise Workers Today, China Left Review, Isue#4, Summer 2011,

Pemberton, Chris Papua New Guinea: Resource colonialism bleeding people and nature, Green Left Weekly No. 949, 9.12.2012

People’s Daily: China’s State-owned Enterprise Lay-offs Finding New jobs: Minister, 27.10.2002,

Pew Research Center: The Future Global Muslim Population. Projections for 2010-2030 (2011),

Preobrazenskij, Evgenij: Die Neue Ökonomik (1926); Berlin 1971

____ The Decline of Capitalism (1931); Translation by Richard Day, London 1981

James Petras: Following the Profits and Escaping the Debts. International Immigration and Imperial-Centered Accumulation, 8.8.2006,

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About the Author

Michael Pröbsting was born in Vienna (Austria) in 1967. He became politically active when he was 14 years old and has been an organized Trotskyist militant since the age of 16. After five years of membership in the “United Secretariat of the Fourth International” of Ernest Mandel, he joined the League for a Revolutionary Communist International (later renamed to League for the Fifth International) in February 1989. He served on the leadership bodies of the Austrian section since 1989 and of the LRCI/LFI since 1994 until he and his comrades-in-arms were expelled by the majority of this organization in April 2011.

Soon after this, they founded the Revolutionary Communist Organization for Liberation in Austria and the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency which has sections in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, USA and Austria. He serves as the International Secretary of the RCIT. As part of his international political work, Michael Pröbsting stayed for longer periods in Occupied Palestine (Israel) in 1985, in Eastern Germany during the political revolutionary process in 1989/91, in Britain in 1994 and during the revolutionary period in Argentina in 2002.

In addition, he gained experience in the workers and anti-imperialist movement during his numerous visits to Sri Lanka, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Kosovo, Serbia, Ukraine, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Germany, Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Sweden and the USA. Michael Pröbsting is the author of many articles and pamphlets in both the German and English languages. He has also published books on Migration (“Marxismus, Migration und revolutionäre Integration”, 2010) and the Arab Revolution (“Die halbe Revolution. Lehren und Perspektiven des arabischen Aufstandes”, 2011).

Furthermore, he contributed to books on Rosa Luxemburg (“Rosa Luxemburg – ‘Ich bin ein Land der unbeschränkten Möglichkeiten’”, 1999) as well as the “The Credit Crunch – A Marxist Analyses” (2008) which has been published in English, German and Turkish.

Preface for the Portuguese Translation of “The Great Robbery of the South”

By Michael Pröbsting, 14 March 2021

It is a great pleasure to see the Portuguese-language translation of “The Great Robbery of the South”! It has been clear to us for a long time that the super-exploitation of the South by the imperialist monopolies has become an increasingly important feature of global capitalism. This has been the case because the imperialists not only have exploited the natural resources of the (semi-)colonial countries (which they have done since centuries) but also because capitalist value production has increasingly moved to the South.

Another, corresponding feature of the very same fundamental development has been the increasing migration from the South and the resulting growing importance of migrants for the class struggle in the imperialist countries. This issue played an important role in the faction struggle in our predecessor organization and our resulting bureaucratic expulsion in April 2011. [1] Our book-like “Theses on Migration” became one of the earliest major works of the RCIT which we founded soon after our expulsion. [2]

As said above, it was clear to us that the increasing role of migration and the increasing shift of capitalist value production to the South were two sides of the same coin. Hence, we soon decided to deepen our theoretical understanding of the second aspect of this major topic. The result was, after several months of writing and discussions, the publication of the “The Great Robbery of the South” in April 2013.

Naturally, some figures in the book could be replaced by more actual data. But basically, the book has not lost its actuality because all the main developments with which dealt it, their theoretical analysis as well as the issues of program and tactics remain of crucial importance for a proper Marxist understanding of the world situation.

In this brief preface we will not summarize the content of this book, not least because its last chapter contains already such a summary. At this place we shall draw attention only to two issues which, in our opinion, are particularly relevant for a Brazilian audience (but also for others).

First, the book critically deals, among others, with the so-called theory of sub-imperialism (see chapter 9). [3] This theory was initially developed by the Brazilian socialist Ruy Mauro Marini in the 1960s. Rejecting Lenin’s conception which divides the world in oppressor and oppressed nations, imperialist and (semi-)colonial countries, this theory claims that a third category of countries (“sub-imperialist”) has emerged. Actually, he viewed Brazil as such a country. [4] As we show in this book, such a view is utterly wrong since Brazil was and remains basically a semi-colonial – albeit an advanced and industrialized – country dominated by imperialist powers.

However, since the days of Marini, this theory of sub-imperialism has become increasingly popular – mainly among Marxist academics but also among some socialist organizations. All kind of countries are now characterized as “sub-imperialist”: China, South Korea, Russia, Iran, Greece, Turkey, South Africa, Argentina, etc. [5]

Naturally, Marxists are intransigent enemies of the national bourgeoisie of their country. Hence when the capitalist government conducts a reactionary military operation abroad, revolutionaries will rigorously oppose it. For example, when Brazil socialists opposed the leading role of the Brazil army in the MINUSTAH mission in Haiti (“United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti”) in 2004 to 2017 we fully shared such a stance. All socialists and sincere anti-imperialists had to oppose what was effectively a military occupation force in the service of the Great Powers.

Hence, if socialists, under such conditions, flirt with the application of the theory of sub-imperialism for their own country as an expression of their anti-patriotic approach, this could reflect – to a certain degree – a healthy class instinct.

Nevertheless, the theory of sub-imperialism as such is wrong and can only result in utter confusion and might even lead to dangerous practical consequences. The denial of the semi-colonial character of a country might easily result in the refusal to defend it against an imperialist power. Take the example of the pseudo-Trotskyist currents associated with the names of Ted Grant, Peter Taaffe and Alan Woods (once united in the CWI, they have split over the years in different international organizations like the CWI, the ISA and the IMT with Liberdade, Socialismo e Revolução and Esquerda Marxista – both currents within PSOL – as the Brazilian sections of the latter two internationals). This tradition openly or in disguised fashion utilized the concept of sub-imperialism in order to refuse the defense of Argentina against Britain in 1982 or of Iraq against Western imperialism in 1991.

On the other hand, the concept of sub-imperialism can also be applied to states which are in fact imperialist states (e.g. to China, Russia or South Korea). In such a case this might result in refusal of taking a revolutionary defeatist position in a conflict between such a state and an imperialist rival (e.g. the U.S. or Japan).

Unfortunately, such an approach is highly popular among many leftists – in Latin America as well as globally. Many reformist and populist currents – from social democracy like the PT, Chavismo/Bolivarianismo to Stalinism – they all consider China as a welcome ally against Yankee imperialism. It should not go unnoticed that most forces of Latin American Trotskyism share such denial of China’s imperialist character. The Argentinean PO (both factions) even fancies that capitalist restoration still has not been completed in China! Others – like the PTS/FT, PSTU/LIT and UIT – recognize its capitalist character but also categorically reject the theses of Chinese imperialism. [6]

These brings us also to the second issue to which I would like to draw attention in this brief preface. As the reader can see, we deal extensively with the process of capitalist restoration in China in the early 1990s and its subsequent transformation into an imperialist power in the late 2000s. We can state, not without pride, that the RCIT was nearly alone in recognizing this process from early on. We took such position already in summer 2010 and, two years later, we published our analysis in a substantial study. [7] Chapter 10 in the present book is based on this study. Since then, we have published a number of additional analytical works on China’s class character which are all compiled on the special page on our website. [8]

As said, at that time we were nearly alone in recognizing the imperialist character of China. Today, an increasing number of activists as well as intellectuals recognize this fundamental fact which is the basis to understand the character of the Cold War between the U.S. and China as a form of inner-imperialist rivalry. In fact, the example of Chinese imperialism demonstrates how important it is for a Marxist organization to undertake serious theoretical work in order to recognize new developments – and to recognize them when they are taking place and not only a decade later when everyone can see it!

Such recognition of the imperialist character of the rivalry between the Great Powers (U.S., China, EU, Russia, and Japan) is particularly crucial today. As we have said repeatedly, it is impossible to grasp the dynamic of the world political developments without understanding the key role of the antagonistic interests and conflicts between the imperialist Great Powers.

This is all the more true as we have entered a period characterized by the Third Depression, i.e. the worst economic slump of the capitalist world economy since 1929, a global anti-democratic turn towards chauvinism and state bonapartism; and the COVID-19 pandemic, the ruling classes all over the world are determined to strengthen themselves at the expense of their rivals. Against such a background, an acceleration of the rivalry between the imperialist Great Powers – in particular between the two strongest, U.S. and China – is unavoidable.

In such a period, socialists – in Latin America as well as globally – must not lend support to any imperialist bourgeoisie. They need to fight against imperialist domination by any Great Power – the U.S., China or others. In any political, economic, or military conflict between imperialist states, socialists must take a revolutionary defeatist position against each of these reactionary enemies. Latin America can become free only in the struggle against all imperialist powers and not in alliance with one of them!

Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to comrade Joao Evangelista. As the reader can see, this is an extensive book, and it is easy to imagine what an arduous work this translation must have been! It is a pleasure to work along such a comrade so gifted in speaking several languages!

[1] On the history of the RCIT and its predecessor organization see our book by Michael Pröbsting: Building the Revolutionary Party in Theory and Practice. Looking Back and Ahead after 25 Years of Organized Struggle for Bolshevism, December 2014,

[2] Michael Pröbsting: Thesen zu Rassismus, Migration, der Lage der MigrantInnen in Österreich und der Strategie der revolutionären Integration (2011), Unfortunately, this work exists only in German language. However, we published a summary of it in English: Marxism, Migration and revolutionary Integration,

[3] See on this issue also the essay by Michael Pröbsting: Semi-Colonial Intermediate Powers and the Theory of Sub-Imperialism. A contribution to an ongoing debate amongst Marxists and a proposal to tackle a theoretical problem, 1 August 2019,

[4] See e.g. Ruy Mauro Marini: Brazilian “Interdependence” and Imperialist Integration, in: Monthly Review Vol. 17, No. 7 (December 1965); Ruy Mauro Marini: Brazilian Sub-Imperialism, in: Monthly Review Vol. 23, No. 9 (February 1972)

[5] We have elaborated a concrete analysis of these countries in numerous works. See on this – beside the relevant chapters in the present book – the following: On China and Russia see the extensive literature mentioned in the special sub-section on our website:; on China see also the essay of Michael Pröbsting: Chinese Imperialism and the World Economy, in second edition of The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham 2020,; on South Korea see e.g. our pamphlet: South Korea as an Imperialist Power. On the nature of South Korean monopoly capital and the ensuing programmatic tasks of the workers vanguard, December 2019,; on India see our pamphlet The China-India Conflict: Its Causes and Consequences, August 2017, Revolutionary Communism No. 71, (chapter V); see also Michael Pröbsting: Is India a New Emerging Great Power? In: Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory, Vol. 48, Issue 1 (2020),; on Iran: RCIT: Iran: Down with Trump’s Sanctions and Military Threats! But no political support for the reactionary Mullah Regime in Teheran! 11 May 2019,; on Greece see our book by Michael Pröbsting: Greece: A Modern Semi-Colony. The Contradictory Development of Greek Capitalism, Its Failed Attempts to Become a Minor Imperialist Power, and Its Present Situation as an Advanced Semi-Colonial Country with Some Specific Features, RCIT Books, Vienna 2015,; On the RCIT’s analysis of Turkey as an advanced semi-colony see: Michael Pröbsting: World Perspectives 2018: A World Pregnant with Wars and Popular Uprisings. Theses on the World Situation, the Perspectives for Class Struggle and the Tasks of Revolutionaries (Chapter V), RCIT Books, Vienna 2018,

[6] See on this e.g. the book by Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan. A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective, RCIT Books, Vienna 2019,; see also Michael Pröbsting: How is it possible that some Marxists still Doubt that China has Become Capitalist? (A Critique of the PTS/FT). An analysis of the capitalist character of China’s State-Owned Enterprises and its political consequences, 18 September 2020,; by the same author: Unable to See the Wood for the Trees. Eclectic empiricism and the failure of the PTS/FT to recognize the imperialist character of China, 13 August 2020,

[7] Michael Pröbsting: China‘s transformation into an imperialist power. A study of the economic, political and military aspects of China as a Great Power, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 4 (August 2012),

[8] See

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